Thursday, June 15, 2017

DACHAU-KZ - SATELLITE CAMPS - PART 19 Alphabetical Order M


 

                                            


MUNICH - RIEM (OT CAMP)
The Munich-Riem airport was a strategic target of numerous air raids during the war .Multiple landing strips and workshops were destroyed. In order to maintain air traffic, clearing and repair work had to be carried out

Bomb craters had to be filled and a new runway built. These works were under the supervision of the Organization Todt (OT) and the work force was provided by prisoners from the KZ-Dachau. In February 1943, the first 600 prisoners came from Dachau to Munich-Riem. About two kilometers from the airfield a sub-camp was converted from horse stables of the SS riding school. The stables were fenced with barbed wire and guarded by a security unit

                                  Munich-Riem-mar1944-He177_A-5-greif.jpg

            Two He-177A-5 'Greifs' and several other aircraft in front of the hangars at   Munich-Riem                            



The number of prisoners varied considerably. In February 1943, 600 prisoners came to Munich-Riem, at the end of 1944 there were only 300 prisoners, and by the turn of the year 1944-45 a survivor gave the figure of 100. It is certain that at the end of March / beginning of April 1945 after the evacuations of sub-camps of KZ-Natzweiler such as Neckarelz, and Moosbach several hundred prisoners were transferred to the sub-camp Munich-Riem. On April 26 there were 543 prisoners present. In addition to these sub-camps, Munich-Allach,  was one of the largest encampment in the vicinity of Munich.








 
This allied reconnaissance photo of Munich-Riem in 1945 shows the results of visits by Allied bombers: craters all over the north side of the airfield and destroyed station buldings and hangars. A runway is also recognisable, it was probably built for use by the Me-262 jet fighter.


                                    Munich-Riem-1945.jpg  


 

 In the sub-camp Riem were mainly prisoners from Russia, France, Italy and the German Reich. Among them were about 200 Sinti and Romano and a certain number of Jews. The first Kapo was the German Ludwig Müller, the camp scribe was Hans Bonn and camp leader Fritz Mannel. Both were transferred on 1 April 1945back to the Stammlager Dachau. Thus, in the last few weeks there were no prisoners functionaries in Munich-Riem.
 The food provided by the camp kitchen within the barbed wire fencing was described as completely inadequate by former prisoners. In the morning they were given thin coffee, at noon watery cabbage or potato soup, and in the evening coffee again with a slice of bread. Many of the prisoners were undernourished and weakened by the heavy earthwork they had to carry out. Anyone who was sick or unable to work was brought back to  KZ-Dachau, and whoever broke down on the way to the workplace was driven on by the guards without any reservations. There was no hospital in this camp.
In the case of an air raid, the camp's staff was safe in shelters, but no measures had been taken for the detainees. Instead, the camp gate was opened and the prisoners were ordered to hide in the surrounding area.
 Anyone who did not return to the camp immediately at the end of the air raids was searched for and if apprehended, shot. The prisoners took advantage of this opportunity to leave the camp to look for potatoes in the surrounding fields or to beg for food from farmers. If the guards   found foodstuffs on the returnees, those prisoners were executed without reason through the neck for alleged looting. Civilians did came to the camp administration several times to complain about theft of food stuff, while the prisoners took advantage of the opportunity to leave the camp. If the guards found foodstuff on returnees, these prisoners were shot without reason for looting. In these cases the suspects were usually shot immediately on the assembly court. In February or March 1945, 20 Russian prisoners were thus murdered.
Despite these draconian punishments, there were escape attempts. The majority of them ended up by execution of the fugitives. In these cases the suspects were usually shot on the assembly court. 

The Allied air raids were the greatest danger and the most frequent cause of deaths. During the bombing on the 9th April 1945 at least 41 prisoners were killed and a further 40 were wounded. On April 1st, 1945 three dead and 94 wounded prisoners were returned to the KZ-Dachau. A former prisoner reported that after the air raids wounded prisoners were shot by the SS guard team. (He was unable to give specific details, except in his statement,  Marian P 19.9.1974 in: StA München Stanw 3I 503/5.  sic.) 
                                
                                                  The last remaining part of the runway                        

                                                https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/68/Franz_Trenkle.jpg/255px-Franz_Trenkle.jpg   
                      Franz Xaver Trenkle in American internment. Recording from 1945.

 Trenkle, widowed and father of four children, had been a member of the SS since 1932. From November 1933 onwards, Trenkle was deployed in the Dachau concentration camp, where he served as a block commander until the spring of 1936. Subsequently, Trenkle was commandant in several camps in the Dachau concentration camp. From May 1938 onwards, Trenkle was used as commandant in the outer camp St. Gilgen on Lake Wolfgang, falsely also called St. Wolfgang. There, with two other SS men, he was responsible for the supervision of ten concentration camp prisoners who were to build a private villa for the camp commander, Hans Loritz   
After the establishment of the Neuengamme concentration camp , Trenkle was appointed rapport leader there in 1940 and then probably moved to Sachsenhausen concentration camp . In November 1942, he returned to the Dachau concentration camp, where he served as rapport leader and deputy arresteer until March 1944. Subsequently, Trenkle was ttransferred to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp until early January 1945. From January 6, 1945, Trenkle once again served as commandant and supervised concentration camp prisoners in the outer camp of Dachau concentration camp in Lauingen . From the beginning of April 1945 until the 29th of April 1945 Trenkle was commandant in the camp Flugplatz München-Riem of the organization Todt .
After the war, Trenkle was arrested on 15 November 1945 for the Dachau trial , which took place within the framework of the Dachau Processes , as a war criminal by a US military court, and on 13 December 1945 for "assistance and participation in the crimes in the concentration camp Dachau "with thirty-five other co-defendants sntenced to death by the rope . In the verdict, the execution  ordered by the Gestapo as well as the ill-treatment and killing of prisoners were considered as individual criminal acts by Trenkle. The verdict was death on May 28, 1946, at the war crimes jail at Landsberg.

                                 Image
 


The sub-camp was not dissolved. On 24/25 April 1945, only the Jewish prisoners were brought back by trucks to the Stammlager Dachau  directly from Munich-Riem and later freed on 29.4.41945 by the Americans. The majority of the prisoners, about 1,000 prisoners, were evacuated directly from Riem on the 25th of April 1945 towards the south. The prisoners marched via Trudering towards Bad Tölz, the other 500 moved across Grossheslohe, Grünwald and Deiningen to Dettenhausen. Both marches   survivors described' abuse as well as shootings of prisoners who were too weak to go on. Some prisoners took the opportunity to escape and hid themselves until the arrival of the Americans in barns or forests. A small part of the prisoners were held back in the riding school. According to the prisoner database at the K-Gedenkstätte (Memorial Site) Dachau, 133 detainees were liberated by American troops in Riem.
Today,  the former riding school,is again used by the police as a horse riding school.

Author German Text: Sabine Schalm






                                       
A side issue - as American Hangings at Landsberg do not show the effect of the 'Long Drop' hangimg

                                           The body of a Japanese war criminal as seen through the trapdoor of the gallows immediately after he was executed by hanging at the Changi Gaol in Singapore. His hands have been tied behind his back and he wears all white, including a hood over his head. Note the semicircles marked on the visible half of the trapdoor, which match up to form full circles indicating where those about to be hanged should stand. (1946) Via the Australian War Memorial
The body of a Japanese war criminal as seen through the trapdoor of the gallows immediately after he was executed by hanging at the Changi Gaol in Singapore. His hands have been tied behind his back and he wears all white, including a hood over his head. Note the semicircles marked on the visible half of the trapdoor, which match up to form full circles indicating where those about to be hanged should stand. (1946) Via the Australian War Memorial 









MUNICH - SCHWABING 'SISTER PIA'
Pre-Amble
:
 Not to confuse the reader,  I have translated the German expression 'Schwester'  which means Sister as Nurse which is what they are, in one capacity or other, yet they are always addressed as 'Schwester' in German. 

 (Because she missed her stop and did not have any money to pay the additional ticket to the tram conductor, she met Adolf Hitler in 1920. Its companion, Anton Drexler, founder of the DAP, paid the fare for Eleonore Baur. Through this experience, Sister Pia, as the nurse was called, became a glowing supporter of the "movement": she pasted posters, distributed leaflets, participated in meetings, hall battles and street fighting. She also participated in the "march to the Feldherrnhalle" in 1923. She had marched "in the fourth row," she said later, and even provided Hitler's injury. Like all "old comrades" who had participated in the Hitlerputsch, Eleonore Baur also received the "Blutorden" - the only woman. "Sister Pia" she took care of the prisoners of Dachau concentration camp from 1934 onwards: for some she was the "saving angel", for the others the "devil".
 HKS)
 

It is clear that she made a steep right career and that despite her classification as the main culprit, she kept her property after the war and had a pension. Eleonore Baur belonged to the contestants, perpetrators and profiteers, to whom the book "Right Careers", published by Marita Krauss. From the Weimar period to the post-war years ".)
 

The sub-camp Munich-Schwabing was the first commando of KZ-prisoners, which was permanently set up to work outside the KZ-Dachau control. Its structure, management and organization did not lie with the SS-WVHA and the camp commando Dachau, as with most of the later sub-camps, but exclusively with the person of Eleonore Baur alias 'Nurse Pia'.



                                      2.jpg 
                   She was the only women that took part in the Beer Hall Putsch November 1923

 This fanatical nationalist in the earliest period since Nazi domination. owed her close acquaintance with Reichsfiührer Heinrich Himmler since 1933 due to an appointment with the SS as a guardian in the Dachau Concentration Camp. She was allowed to move there without restrictions. Ever since In 1934 the prisoner Erich Essner occasionally did gardening for Nurse Pia in her private apartment at Voitstrasse 6 in Munich. As a result, additional  prisoners would have to take care of her housework. In 1935 Hitler was to have given her a house in Oberhaching in Munich. Here, Nurse Pia set up in 1937 a team of KZ-prisoners to have elaborate alterations carried out. They had to build a garage, a bathhouse and a bunker. The raw materials for these construction measures were taken exclusively from the supplies of KZ-Dachau. For a minimum of the material she paid apparently, for most, however, not. She had wide-ranging privileges. For instance, the prisoners had to produce furniture and carvings for her in the KZ-workshops, or to make children's toys. The labor force of the prisoners was granted to Nurse Pia free of charge. She made weekly visits to the prisoners' kitchen, from there she regularly disappeared with meat and margarine which she took away in her service car, and she had  made no payment at all. Within the camp, Nurse Pia was known that she was 'organizing' everything she could get hold of. ['organizing' during wartime was more or less an acronym and meant stealing,sic] 


                               This is the famous Schwester Pia (Sister Pia), who was very close to Hitler in the early 1920’s. Her real name was Eleonore Baur. She met Hitler in 1920 and admitted to Emil Maurice in 1929 that she had been “violently in love with Hitler.” Since she was four years older than Hitler, no real relationship developed, since Hitler always preferred young and naïve women.  

                                                
  This is the famous Schwester Pia (Sister Pia), who was very close to Hitler in the early 1920’s. Her real name was Eleonore Baur. She met Hitler in 1920 and admitted to Emil Maurice in 1929 that she had been “violently in love with Hitler.” Since she was four years older than Hitler, no real relationship developed, since Hitler always preferred young and naïve women.


  At the beginning, the prisoners were taken to Nurse Pia at irregular intervals on one or more days a week and returned in the evening to Dachau. From 1940 a permanent sub-camp, consisting of about twelve to 14 male prisoners, was established. At first, the prisoners were taken by trucks daily from the Concentration Camp to work, but later they were accommodated at Nurse Pia's and sometimes at the weekends taken back to Dachau. The sub-camp was exclusively used by Nurse Pia, she directed the labor orders and set working hours. She was even participating in the selection of prisoners that should work for her. Under her command, hard work had to be done, not infrequently also on Sundays. The attendant SS members of the KZ-Dachau took over the guard duty.
[Although Nurse Pia belonged to a Religious Order (and called each other 'Schwester' (Sister) which means in German 'Nurse'. It is surprising that she did not observe Sundays as the day of God and Prayer and made prisoners work, in other words she was a proper B-sic]




It is not known that Pia attacked prisoners, but in almost all statements of former prisoners, Nurse Pia has harassed them. If she was in a bad mood, or a prisoner did not work fast enough in her eyes, she had him, for example, descend into the sewage pit full of excrements and scrub the walls clean with a brush. At the same time, Nurse Pia was feared by the prisoners because of her great influence on the camp management.
If a prisoner had fallen into disgrace with her, she did not hesitate to complain about one inmate for example and sent a criminal report (Strafmeldung) to the camp commandant's office, where the offender was given Bunker Arrest. She did threaten another prisoner that he would not leave the Dachau  Concentration Camp alive, of that she would make certain. It was probably his transfer to Sachsenhausen that his life was spared. Another detainee also reported abuse after Baur sent a criminal report about him to the Camp Administration.

Bloedorde 1934 Duitsland.jpg    

party_pin
Medals she did wear with pride, however, it looks that she did not join the NSDAP bfore 1933, otherwise the badge would have ben in Gold
 

In all, the reputation of the "commando Sister Pia'' was ambivalent. On the ner hand, the home-cooked food was well above average, the prisoners ate with Nurse Pia, and her servants together at a table. (This is typical in religious household-sic). In addition, they were allowed to smoke and had the opportunity to smuggle letters from this camp.Although  Baur's unpredictability and capriciousness were very much feared.
                                                                 



The ambiguity of her person is clearly reflected during witness interrogations of former prisoners. There are many positive experiences about Eleonore Baur. The clergyman Huber, for whom she was particularly active, called her the "Angel of Dachau" on his deathbed, who, he claimed, had done much good in the concentration camp. Other prisoners had found out that Nurse Pia had supported their release from prison and had financially supported the despaired members of their families. In 1943, she was even temporarily banned by Reichsführer SS Himmler to enter the Dachau KZ because she had supposedly smuggled letters out from prisoners still inside the KZ. At the same time, however, prisoners of her working commando, her housekeepers, and neighbors said she was the image of a capricious, hysterical, and fanatic woman, who knew how to use her pwn principles  without compromise. Some witnesses even suggest that Nurse Pia had love services performed on her by prisoners. [It is not mentioned what this entailed-sic]
These discrepancies can be explained by taking into account which groups of prisoners Nurse Pia showed as benevolently. As a convinced and fanatical nationalist she hated Jews and Poles, so her working commando consisted mainly of political prisoners from Germany and Austria. For Christmas, she regularly donated political prisoners with the 'Pia Päckchen (Parcels)', which were filled with various food stuff. At the same time several prisoners were whipped on the bock at the Weihnachtsfeier ( X-mas festivities) in 1938. Nurse Pia was involved in the ill-treatment and announced that she would continue to work for political prisoners, but to make sure that Jews and foreigners 'sollen verrecken' (are to be put off)
When the working commando 'Sister Pia' was dissolved,t can not be clearly stated. The International Search Service shows the last mention of the year 1942. This date, however, seems too early. Several prisoners report that they had to work at Sister Pia's place until 1944.
Eleonore Baur was classified as a main culprit )Hauptschuldige) at a trial in 1949. Her assets and the villa in Oberhaching were initially  confiscated, she was sentenced to ten years into a labor camp, but only served for one year. Investigations of the Prosecutor's Office Munich II of 1949 were discontinued 1950 because of lack of evidence.
Eleonore Baur died 1981





main

                           Graveyard , Burial site of Sister Baur - the headstone has been removed
                       
 .
Author German Text: Sabine Schalm

APPENDIX

Actual Court Proceedings

gBaur was arrested on May 5, 1945, and released shortly thereafter. The US Army's Counter Intelligence Corps took it up again on July 12th.  In August 1949, an investigation was initiated against members of the SS for murder . Baur admitted that three times to have participated in Rascher's subcooling experiments, which were often fatal. The court heard about a hundred witnesses. The accusation was largely based on Walter Neff's (https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Neff) statement that he himself had encountered it twice in experiments. The doctors Holzlöhner and Finke had previously suggested to administer a light anesthesia. She (Braur) had protested, intervened and supported Rascher. Rascher's experiments were then carried out without anesthesia. Finke said that she had nothing to do here, and she had left the room. The First Criminal Court of the Munich District Court came to the conclusion that "the evidence of an aid to a crime of murder, bodily injury with death or dangerous bodily injury is to be considered as insufficient". 
Independently, a second charge was filed against them under the "Act for the Liberation of National Socialism and Militarism" within the framework of denazification . The main chamber heard 44 witnesses . The statements revealed a contradictory picture. She had not committed any active crimes, but she took advantage of the labor force of the prisoners in her villa  She was a glowing national socialist and anti-Semite, and had used her relations to the highest party levels to frighten neighbors and acquaintances. A neighbor, Maria Hohenester, was denounced in a seven-week investigation. Statements described her character as being unpredictable, moody, hysterical. A witness described how she participated in the schilling malaria experiments. Another witness, Alois Siegl, described her as a "seldom noble and kind woman," as she put the Kapo Deiner, who had replaced Siegl before. Moreover, in 1943 or 1944, Himmler had made the point that SS camp leader Kampe would be relieved, since he was too raw. This happened, but Himmler had forbidden her access to the camp. The SS man, Rudolf Wirth, who was assigned to her as a chauffeur by the end of February, confirms that she was no longer allowed to enter the camp from about 1943 onwards. He stated that Baur had tried to smuggle out letters of female prisoners. Another witness stated that Baur had been with them by most of the SS leaders, and that she had a picture of her in the wine cellar, "Sister Pia, our best SS man." Her housekeeper, Carolina Neulein, reported that SS leaders were frequently visiting the villa, partly also the SS chapel, and also that Baur liked to say: "There is only one Frederick the Great, there is only one Adolf Hitler, there is only one sister Pia. "The most positive testimony came from German and Austrian clergymen. They stated that by ther position of power she had helped a few prisoners, mostly parishioners from Germany. She had brought them bread and tried to release some of them. Polish clergy were excluded. 
On the 26th of August, 1949, she was sent to ten years of denazification in a Arbeitslager (Labor Camp) , which was the shighest punishment in the denazification law [although this law existed only for four years-sic], as well as the loss of her civil rights and the confiscation of its possessions up to a residual amount of DM 1,000.  She appealed . The Appeals Court reduced the sentence to eight years on 20 February 1951, which had no consequences. Already in June 1950, eight months after the verdict, she had been released from prison for health reasons. She returned to the possession of her villa. Later, she filed a motion for prisoners of war compensation. Whether this has been granted is not apparent from the file. 
Over thirty years later she died in 1981 at the age of 95 years. In Munich's Mercury , a death declaration of the comradeship Freikorps Oberland / Bund Oberland appeared with the slogan " Your honor was called loyalty - your life was Germany". The ad signed by Deputy Fridolin of Spaun   On her grave cross in Deisenhofen is written: "Sister Pia, a life for Germany".


 
Sources/Acknowledgements:                                                   
Wikipedia - 
 
Der Ort des Terrors, Pages 442 -
Vol 2 C.H.Beck, München 2005




Translated from German by:
 Stolpmann,Herbert Karl Walter
 von Waldeck
Design: dean_dstolpmann@gmail.com     Continued under Part 20






 

                                         

Thursday, June 1, 2017

DACHAU-KZ - SATELLITE CAMPS - PART 18 M

                  

                                        Alphabetical Order

                                                  M  

                              


                                                        


 



    MUNICH - FREIMANN-DYCKENHOFF AND WIDMANN

 The company Dyckerhoff and Widmann, founded in Karlsruhe in 1865, opened an office for the production of concrete in Munich. During the Second World War, it was an important concrete producer  for the war industry. Among other things, the construction of two aircraft halls  was started at Munich-Riem in 1938, and 9,000 square meter of shale fencing were built for the BMW facilities in Munich-Allach in 1940/41. In Munich-Freimann, the company Dyckerhoff and Widmann erected barracks about 500 meters next to the SS garrison at  Ingolstädterstrasse 93, for the contract of the expansion to the  existing barracks. From September 9, 1942, 25 Polish, Czech, German and Yugoslavian prisoners from KZ-Dachau were deployed on this construction site. Four weeks later the commando was increased by a further ten inmates.
The prisoners had to work up to twelve hours a day and were driven on by the SS crew to peak performances. They were also abused for minor offenses. There was no medical treatment from the consequences of occupational accidents and torments. On Sundays, the prisoners were used for maintenance work within the garrison.
The prisoners were accommodated within the SS garrison spread over several rooms with barred windows. Armed SS guards were posted in front of their accommodation. The prisoners were not allowed to move freely within this area.
The sub-camp's guards consisted of a commanding officer and a few SS members from the Dachau concentration camp. During the work, the prisoners were accompanied by SS guards from the garrison. Names of SS-members from this sub-camp are not known. Among the prisoners, there were three Kapos, Karl Rapp, Erwin Görlich and David Feigl.
When the construction work was completed, the sub-camp was disbanded and 24 prisoners returned to the KZ-Dachau on the 10th December 1942.
(
During World War II Dyckerhoff & Widmann used slave labour from Camp No. 36 at the new sub-camp of Auschwitz III called "Arbeitslager Blechhammer". Most of these would die in 1945 during the death marches and finally in Buchenwald.sic)
 
Author German Text: Sabine Schalm











       MUNICH-FREIMANN: REICH RAILWAY MAINTENANCE PLANT

Since 1927, the German Reichsbahn operated a repair shop at Frankplatz 19 in Munich-Freimann to maintain electric traction locomotives. In addition, the entire freight car repairs were carried out here. According to the International Search Service in Arolsen, the sub-camp Reichsbahn Maintenance Plant-Freimann existed from 28 March to 19 April 1945. But already during 1943 prisoners from the KZ-Dachau worked in the Maintenance shop. Information on the prisoner's strength varies between 20 and 1,200. The prisoners were used for the repair and maintenance of locomotives. They did not live on the premises, but were taken daily by train from Dachau to Freimann, and returned to the KZ after a twelve hour shift. The guard teams were composed mainly of ethnic German SS members (Volksdeutsche). 30 SS posts had been transferred from the sub-camp Gusen of the KZ-Mauthausen to this commando. The commandant is unknown by name. In 1944 the Polish prisoner Gustav Tillmann was appointed as Kapo. From the Central Office of the Landeskustizverwaltung (District Justice Department)  during 1973 initiated  investigations, which were discontinued 1974. The site is still used as the Maintenance Plant for the German Federal Railroad.

Author German Text: Sabine Schalm




 


MUNICH - FREIMANN, SS-LOCAL ADMINISTRATION

From the 19th November 1941 there were in the local SS-Administration Building at Ingolstädterstrasse 193 in Munich-Freimann, 27 prisoners used in the sub-camp within the administration building. The first prisoners were 'Protective Custody Prisoners' (Schuzhaft Häftlinge), the majority came from Poland, some from the German Reich and Czechoslovakia. The composition of the inmates changed several times over the following years, but strength wise, it remained the same.

The prisoners had to carry out various activities in the garrison  area, such as carpentry and re-roofing, dig wells, mainly remove debris and clean up their assigned area. Four of them worked in the cauldron of the barracks. , Several times, the prisoners went to Munich to pick up clean laundry for the SS members, or to make other errands. On the weekend they had to clean the accommodation of their SS guards. After ten or twelve hours of work, the prisoners were locked up into several rooms on the third floor of a house inside the garrison. 1944 parts of the SS-barracks were destroyed in an air attack and from then on the prisoners had to be kept in a garage.

While in the sub camp Richard Gerlich from Breslau was made Kapo. There were no other detainees that became functionaries.
The first commander-in-chief, was SS-Scharführer Ernst Wicklein. In February 1943 followed, SS Hauptscharführer Josef Neuner, and in June 1943 SS Hauptscharführer Josef Remmele. The SS-Hauptscharführer Johann Reiss was Commanding Officer from July 1943 to January 1945 in the sub camp, the last commanding officer is unknown. Furthermore, SS-Guards were used to guard the prisoner within the barracks. The main reason for this is that the prisoners had been able to carry out various activities in the garrison area, mainly clean up debris on the ground and in general keep the place tidy.  Several times, the prisoners went to Munich proper to pick up clean laundry for the SS members, or to make other errands. On the weekend they had to clean the living quarters of their sixteen SS guards (a rather high ratio to guard 27 low risk inmates,sic), these were mainly ethnic Germans from Rumania.

Reports from survivors testify to abuse by the commandant Johann Reiss. In the summer of 1943 a Russian prisoner was hanged in the barracks because he had stolen food in the cellar. The working commando had to go to watch the execution and one of the prisoners was forced to put the sling around the neck of the condemned and then push the chair away. The corpse was rearranged and sent  to the KZ-Dachau.

                                                         
                          Image
                                                 Typical hanging at Landsberg am Lech

Image

In the third week of April 1945, the prisoners walked on foot to their Stammlager Dachau and from there on to the evacuation march southward.
The former commandant, Josef Neuner, was sentenced to death in the Dachau trials and hanged in Landsberg. The American military court imposed a five-year prison term on Johann Reiss.
In 1973 the central office of the Landesjustizverwaltung in Ludwigsburg initiated an investigation procedure about crimes in the sub-camp Munich-Freimann, the proceedings against Johann Reiss because of suspicion in killings at the sub-camp, yet it was was stopped 1976, as no substance of deaths coul
d be proven. Today the barracks are used by the Bundeswehr.

   MUNICH - MOOSACH, CHEMICAL FACTORY

In 1903, Dr. Anselm Kahn and Dipl. Ing. Franz Witmann acquired the Chemical Factory Otto Bärlocher, founded in Augsburg in 1864. They moved the factory seat together with production lines to Munich. Especially after the First World War, they expanded their product range and produced sulfuric acid and ammonia, artificial fertilizer, shoe polish and detergents. In 1938, the chemical plants were aryanized  to Franz Wittmann by the forced sale of the business shares by the Jewish owners. During the war, the production of industrial coal-fired lighters, of which 
the main customer was the German Reichsbahn, this ensured the existence of the Chenische Werke GnbH Otto Bärlocher.
At this sub-camp at Siemensstrasse 16, between 1 November 1944 and 14 April 1945, about 26 to 32 prisoners were deployed. Today the Siemensstrasse has disappeared from the map. It originally started in Munich-Moosach from the Manteuffelstrasse over the Gärtnerstrasse to the Polkovenstrasse .Survivors are not aware of any reports about this sub-camp Chemical Factory. The International Search Service in Arolsen also has no transport or transfer lists from Stammlager Dachau to this camp available.

Author German Texts: Sabine Schelm

Post-War Years

http://www.baerlocher.com/fileadmin/template/main/images/header_logo.png                                
[The company group Baerlocher has 13 production sites worldwide. Research and development are headquartered near Munich, France, Italy, the USA and India. Overall, Baerlocher is represented in more than 40 countries.

In 1947, Dr. Christian Rosenthal took over the Otto Baerlocher Chemical Company founded in 1823. From 1980 to 2004 the family business was managed by Dr. Michael Rosenthal. In 1998 the move followed from Munich to the surrounding area, to Unterschleißheim. So that international trading partners do not stumble on the "ä" in the company name: The change of name was made inti Baerlocher.

In 1998, the Rosenthal family was, so to speak, a monument to the 175-year anniversary of the company. The Kunststoff-Additivmuseum was opened by means of a foundation at the production site in Lingen. A museum to touch. Documentation and industrial history of the additives, including the associated plastics. Also extensive discussion about the critical substance of PVC as well as its recycling possibilities. sic]

 
MUNICH - OBERFÖHRING
 

The sub-camp Oberföhring was mentioned for the first time on April 1, 1944, by the International Search Service Arolsen. A former inmate remembers that in the autumn of 1944 he and six other prisoners were transferred from the sub-camp Sudelfeld to Oberföhring. Official employer was the construction management of the Waffen-SS and the police. The task of the prisoners to be performed consisted in cooking and cleaning up  as orderlies for SS members and officers of the Wehrmacht, who were billeted in a villa. The exact location of the sub-camp is unknown.

According to a report by the KZ-Dachau, there were still five prisoners in the sub-camp as at 3 April 1945. These had been interspersed in a room of the villa and were guarded in an adjoining room by an  SS-Watchman. In this camp, besides Germans and Poles, Russians, Frenchmen and Belgians, as well as at least three Austrians, who, on account of their faith as pacifists had been retained under the Protection Law (Schutzhaft) at KZ-Dachau  being members of the religious community of Jehovah's Witnesses.

The food of the prisoners was delivered by the KZ-Dachau and prepared by the prisoner cook Kurt Rupelius.
At the end of April 1945, a truck took the prisoners back to the main camp (Stammlager), from where they were heading south with an evacuation march.


Author German Text: Sabine Schelm



 
Sources/Acknowledgements:                                                   
Wikipedia - 
Scrapbook Pages Blog
Der Ort des Terrors, Pages 437 -
Vol 2 C.H.Beck, München 2005



Translated from German by:
 Stolpmann,Herbert Karl Walter
 von Waldeck
Design: dean_dstolpmann@gmail.com     Continued under Part 19



Friday, April 14, 2017

DACHAU-KZ - SATELLITE CAMPS - PART 17 Alphabetical Order M DACHAU-KZ - SATELLITE CAMPS - PART 16 Dachau KZ Satellite Camps Alphabetical Order M Part 17


                                                        


                                         

                            MUNICH - ALLACH - PORCELAIN MANUFACTURER
                             Himmler inspecting Allach porcelain at Dachau on 20 January 1941.

Himmler inspecting Allach porcelain at Dachau on 20 January 1941. Photograph: Image Bank WW2 – NIOD/Amsterdam 

 Porzellanmanufaktur (PMA) was integrated into the empire of the economic enterprises under the direction of the SS-Reichsführung. Within the structure of the economic conglomerate the manufacture belonged to the office W-I (that was 'Steine und Erden' of the Reich) under the direction of the SS Sturnannführer Karl Mummenthey. The founding of the PMA was initiated by Heinrich Himmler as a prestigious object, whose products were intended to "support the education to national socialist people". The figurine program of the manufacture included historical soldiers' figures (among others Fredrich the Great on a horse), and other works of the Hitler Youth, Hitler heads, acts, peasant representations, animal figures, Julleuchter and Julteller, (Jul-tide lights and Jul-tide plates)  and other 'Germanic' ceramics.

It was founded on 3 January 1936 by the three artists Karl Diebisch, Theodor Kärner and Franz Nagy and the SS Obersturmburführer Bruno Galke. Since the 1920s, a small manufacturing company had been located on the site of Lindenstrasse 8 (today Reinhard von Frankstrasse 8) in the Munich district of Allach, on a site adjacent to the Krauss-Maffei armory factory.

                               Himmler presents his birthday gifts to Hitler of Allach figurines in Berlin on the 20 April 1944.

‘The embodiment of the German soul’ … Himmler presents Allach figurines on Hitler’s birthday in 1944. Photograph: Bayerische Staatsbibliothek/Heinrich Hoffman

n the Forfeld of the incorporation of the GmbH into the SS-owned German economic enterprises (DWB) Heinrich Himmler entrusted that the shareholders donated their shares to the SS group leader Oswald Pohl (11.10.1939). In his capacity as head of the HAVW, Pohl combined the company's private and commercial side as of 1942, as the sole shareholder of the PMA. The technical operating was given to art-painter Franz Nagy. The company headquarters were moved to Berlin on 9 October 1940, where it was subject to Himmler's direct control. At the end of 1943, the company moved back to Dachau. Himmler, however, initially refused to use prisoners in the manufactoring process

n contrast to other economic enterprises of the SS, the manufacturing was not primarily directed at the generation of profit.Contracts with Artists had been concluded who designed a. new type of manufacturing markers designated as the mark of the new Porzellan; including SS Runes. The program of the manufacture included both art objects and utensils with a total of 249 porcelain and ceramic models;

                                   A large bivouac bowl and its original box

                                   A large bivouac bowl and its original box Photograph: Alamy
                          
                                     



The Allach maker's mark incorporated stylized SS runes.


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https://p1.liveauctioneers.com/287/99335/50650172_1_x.jpg?version=1485283721                      The Allach maker's mark featuring an “N” for Franz Nagy
                                      Adolf Hitler's Porcelain Alsation sold for US $ 20,000        A telephone used by Adolf Hitler during World War Two has been sold for US $243,000 (£195,744) at a US auction.The identity of the buyer, who bid by phone, has not been revealed. The bidding in Chesapeake City, Maryland, started at $100,000.The red phone, which has the Nazi leader's name engraved on it, was found in his Berlin bunker in 1945.Soviet soldiers gave it to British officer Sir Ralph Rayner as a souvenir shortly after Germany surrendered.
Hitler's phone, which was originally black, was painted red and engraved with his name and a swastika.
                         

    

 After the rapid expansion of the company's facilities in Allach the location was no longer sufficient, on October 1, 1937, part of the production was transferred to the premises of the SS training and exercise  camp at KZ-Dachau in the building of the former powder press plant of 1915 [I  know the building and passed it on my way to work at the Ordnance Supply Depot, sic]. The entire porcelain production was relocated there, whereas in Allach only art ceramics were produced. The space available in the Dachau building which was converted for this purpose was divided in such a way that there was no strict separation between  Civil workers and KZ- prisoners. Professor Ktämer's modesty room was on the first floor, where prisoners were also employed. In the lower floor, where only prisoners worked, the porcelain mill and the construction of the forms were made. In the war years, simple utensils such as ointment containers and canteens were also manufactured in Dachau. The "Julleuchter", which was given away by Himmler at the Julfest (Mid Summer Night), was also made there. Workshops in the area of ​​Dachau, the porcelain factory was undoubtedly the prestige object preferred by Himmler. Amongst others, the singer and the actor Johannes Heesters were taken to the Dachau manufacturing plant in May 1941 to show off, Himmler's pet projects.


 A belling stag designed by Professor Kärner.

                             A belling stag designed by Professor Kärner. Photograph: Alamy




  Prisoners were probably used in the Allach plant as well as on the SS Dachau site. The working detail at Allach consisted, first of all, of about 18 prisoners, who were made up mainly of Germans, and and one Pole, who was a specialist in modeling. As Kapo is recorded, Erwin Zapf from Selb in Franconia. The prisoners were transported daily by truck to Allach. It was only with the existence of the sub-camp Munich-Allach-BMW plants that they were accommodated there. This first involvement with prisoners probably took place as early as in 1940. Due to a decrease in production due to the withdrawal of civilian workers to the front, a search of porcelain workers was conducted in all concentration camps. On July 4, 194, a selection of 13 inmates from Buchenwald were transferred to Dachau were used as porcelain makers and porcelain painters . At the end of 1941, a work force of 67 persons (including 28 workers, 24 clerks, nine apprentices, plus six SS men stood against 60 prisoners, two of them were responsible to collect coal from the Dachau railway yard, Another prisoner by the name of Franz Pirker, was supervising the porcelain kiln. The prisoners were taken daily via the Main Entrance  through the SS-Military Camp to their workplace, and returned in the evening. Only the porcelain kiln workers were used to carry out the continued heating process in the kiln-fire room, who had constantly control temperature and performance of the ovens and thereby were accommodated in the combustion chamber and did not have to return to the camp.
Z
According to the calculations, the number of workers from the KZ during 1943 changed slightly from about 50 in January,to  42 skilled workers and 18 apprentices , and remained at this level during 1944. The numbers fell to about 45 prisoners in February 1945 And on 29 prisoners at the last report of the companies report dated 25 April 1945. After 1945, the porcelain manufacture ceased on the former SS site in Dachau and the US Armed Forces initially took possession of the facilities. They used the building to accommodate  their Labor Service Companies. [These were recruited from former Polish forced laborers, armed and trained as guards, but later De-mobbed as DP's under the auspices of IRO and UNRRA and finally shipped to the States and other countries  sic]
After several years the building decayed and until the demolition in January 1978 only ruins remained.


         The Allach porcelain shop in Warsaw in 1941.

The Allach porcelain shop in Warsaw in 1941. Photograph: Archiwum Cyfrowe/Warsaw

Author 
German Text: Albert Knoll

                                                     

                                               POST SCRUPT
          Allach white porcelain figurine of meddieval costume dancer


2006.468.1 front
Allach white porcelain figurine of a medieval costumed dancer

Click to enlarge
 Glazed white porcelain male figurine in a dancelike pose with the body twisted to the left, with both arms extended outward. The open mouthed face has a goatee, moustache, and pointy nose. The tasseled, pointed hat has a wide brim, flipped up to show the face. A scarf emerges from under the brim, wraps under the chin, and ties behind the neck. The v-neck tunic has a pointed hemline, with 4 tassels at the waist. The sleeves are elbow length and edged with fringe and a small ball and a v-neck undershirt has ¾ sleeves. The legs are crossed in a wide stance with bent knees. The tights have a back seam,with 4 jingle bells around the left calf. Crakow shoes, a slouched boot, are on the feet. It rests on a stone-like porcelain base.
Allach porcelain jester figurine acquired by Adelia W. and Davis O. Morris when they lived in Munich, Germany, as part of the US Army occupation force from 1950-1953. One evening, a man came to their door with the figurine, offering it in trade. He gave it to the Morris's in exchange for a bag of coffee. This is model three of five figures in the Jester series, known as Zaddelrock or Moriskentanzer III, the Astute, produced in 1941. Allach Porcelain and the artist Richard Förster were commissioned by the city of Munich in 1937 to reproduce scaled-down figures of a 1480 Gothic sculpture created by Erasmus Grasser for the Dance House in Munich. The Moriskens were never for public sale, but were made exclusively for the city of Munich as gifts for visiting dignitaries. The city paid Allach 20 Reich Marks for each completed Morisken. Five of the ten figures were put into production.  
The porcelain figurine was donated to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 2006 by Bobbi J. Morris, the daughter of Adelia W. and Davis O. Morris.

 Davis O. Morris attended the Armed Forces Staff College and War College. He was a first lieutenant in the United States Army in Munich where he was stationed for three and a half years, from January 1950 to July 1953. He served under battalion commander Col. James C. Bradford. He and his wife, Adelia, lived at 39 Ravenna Strasse, and later at 7 Wolkenstein Strasse. The couple had a boy and girl while living in Munich and had two more girls after returning to the United States. Morris continued n the Army after the war. He was awarded four bronze stars and served two tours of duty in Vietnam. In 1965, he returned to Germany and was stationed in Nuremburg and Stutttgart. Morris achieved the rank of Brigadier General.

                           1994.46.1 front
Allach porcelain figurine found by a US Army nurse in Dachau concentration camp post-liberation

Click to enlarge

 




Helen Simmons found the figurine at Dachau concentration camp after liberation while working there as a US Army nurse.




Provenance:
The figurine was donated to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 1994 by Herbert Silverman.




  •  Helen Simmons was a U.S. Army Nurse working at Dachau after liberation
  •  White figurine of bearded jester wearing a cap and pointy boots with a sword tied around his waist
  •                                    Sean P. Tully Collection Image, 2007.194.1
Allach porcelain musketeer figurine given to a US Army doctor by recently liberated prisoners of Dachau

Click to enlarge                            
    White porcelain figurine of a costumed musketeer presented to Dr. Joseph A. Witter by a group of recently liberated Jewish prisoners at Dachau concentration camp in appreciation for the aid he provided to sick and dying inmates. The musketeer was deisgned by Robert Forster. The figurines were made with slave labor at the Allach porcelain factory at Dachau. The Allach Porcelain Factory was taken over by the SS in 1936 and was under the direct control of Heinrich Himmler. It was one of the SS's first industrial enterprises. The first factory was at Allach, a subcamp of Dachau concentration camp. A second production site was set up at Dachau to specialize in the production of figurines. Dr. Witter was a surgeon and member of the US Armed Forces 101st Airborne Division, who participated in the liberation of the camp on April 29, 1945. His unit also participated in the liberation of Kaufering concentration camp.



    The Allach porcelain figurine was donated to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 2007 by Sean P. Tully, the grandson of Joseph A. Witter.






    MUNICH - ALLACH - ROTHSCHWAIGE

    Rothschwaige belonged to the Allacher sub camp complex. The commander of the sub-camp Munich-AAllach (BMW) ,was Obersturmführer Josef Jarolin, under his command and subordinate to him were the sub-camps Karlsfeld OT and Rothschwaige. The sub-camp Rothschwaige can no longer be localized. Since July 1942, however, in Dachau, Kufsteinstrasse 12, had been a transit camp for Russian civilian workers, in which about 2,000 people that were accommodated there, who had been used as 'forced laborers' to work in Dachau firms like the paper factory Schuster. Possibly the later KZ-sub camp was built on a part of this transit camp.

    The International Search Service Arolsen (ITS) shows the first mentioning of the sub-camp Rothschwaige on July 19, 1944. A report of the 17th August 1944 indicates an occupancy of 512 Jewish prisoners and 19 functionaries for the period from 11 to 31 July 1944.
    From the reports of the survivors, it can be concluded that Rothschwaige was, first and foremost, a temporary transit camp for Jewish prisoners on their way from Auschwitz to the Allacher Camp Complex. The duration of their stay was a maximum of four to six weeks. All prisoners marched from the Dachau train station on foot to Rothschwaige, they were accommodated there into existing barracks. There are no Rothschwaige prisoners appearing on the handed-in strength reports of the Dachauer sub-commanders and sub-camps dated the 29th November 1944, 3rd April and 26th April 1945.

    Presumably, in addition to the Jewish prisoners, who came into the Allacher sub-camp complexes through Rothschwaige, further detainees were lodged in Rothschwaige, who were deported to other concentration camps after a few days. This probably included a transport of 1,045 Hungarian Jewish women and 'gypsies' as at the  20th November 1944 - who were listed as Karlsfeld prisoners and then transported on the 1st December 1944 to Ravensbrück.
    In contrast to Auschwitz, the detainees found their prison term in Rothschwaige as a relative improvement.'We got hot food, a blanket and a bunk for sleeping'. Abuses and killings of prisoners are not handed down. Unknown is, whether and in what form the Rothschwaiger prisoners were drawn into the OT employment. The assignment of the prisoners to OT as an employer in the ITS directory is not comprehensible according to the reports and statements of survivors.

    There is different information about the closure of the sub-camp. One survivor dated the re-location of the camp to Allach as the 31st July 1944. The international search service shows the last indication as the 31st March 1945. In the camp memorial Dachau, 30 Jews are named, who were liberated here. It would be conceivable that in the course of the overcrowding of the sub camps Allach BMW and Karlsfeld OT in the last few weeks prisoners were also brought to Rothschwaige.
    On the site of the former transit camp, there are still two dilapidated barracks. A part of the terrain is now used as an accommodation for  temporarily  settlers.
    Authors German Text: Albert Knoll/Sabine Schalm

    MUNICH - FREIMANN - BARTOLITH WERKE

    The Bartolith Factory was founded in Munich in April 1942 by Christian Seidl to produce patented timber boards made of wood and cement. The manager was Christian Seidl, who had been supported by his son Norbert since 1943. While Christian Seidl was not a member of the NSDAP or any other national-socialist group, Norbert Seidl joined the NSDAP (Nazi Party) in 1940 and became district leader (Ortsleiter). The first large order was made for the Bartolithwerke with 10,000 building boards for the building of barracks for the SS Construction Management Süd at Dachau in 1942. At that time the company Barftolith did not have sufficient capacity with only six employees in Munich-Freimann to carry out this order. Therefore, Christian Seidl submitted a request  the detention of prisoners from the KZ-Dachau. Before the prisoners were taken to the Mühldorfstrasse, however, a sleeping and housing barracks, sanitary facilities and two watchtowers had to be erected and the entire camp had to be secured with barbed wire.


    On the 28th of August 1942 Hauptscharführer Friedrich Müller came to Freimann as a commanding officer with an advance party of 30 prisoners and his guards. These detainees were first used to build the production facility. On the 12th of November, 1942, a permanent working commando of 30 prisoners and the Kapo Karl Kirschmeier was assigned to Munich-Freimann. In the following week, the number of prisoners increased to about 70 to 80, among them were mainly Germans, Yugoslavs, Czechs and Poles.

    In the winter of 1942/43 the production began in the Bartolith Works. Divided into 'production groups', the prisoners had to meet a certain daily target of building boards from six in the morning to 1800 hours in the evening. The only interruption, was a midday lunch break. The food for the prisoners was brought from the KZ-Dachau on a weekly basis by truck to Freimann. The food ration was inadequate, as the management took parts of it for their civilian workers. The supply degenerated so far that prisoners dug frozen potatoes from a nearby potato field in the winter. After eating these potatoes, some fell ill and were transferred back to Dachau.


    The prisoner, Josef Leitmeier, had become a valuable worker as a construction supervisor for the Bartolith works, and for this reason Norbert Seidl tried to negotiate  his release from the KZ-Dachau.
    Josef Leitmeier was given leave [ Leave 'Urlaub' only ,he was never free and remained a prisoner. sic] on the 30th of October, 1943, under the condition of service only at the Bartholith Works.  During this time, Leitmeier took over the construction of a second Bartholith plant in Erding. [He probably was an Engineer by profession,sic]. No KZ-prisoners were employed for these construction works, but prisoners of war and foreign civilian workers. Both SS-Guard Details and Norbert Seidl mistreated prisoners, if they worked too slowly in their opinion. Commander Müller urged the prisoners to work at an ever-higher rate because he received a monthly premium from the management, depending on the production figures achieved. Deaths in this sub-camp did not occur, however, how many prisoners died from consequences of malnutrition and hard physical work remains unclear.


    According to Norbert Seidl, the prisoner's commando was canceled after completion of the order for SS construction management in July 1943. Instead, jailed inmates from Stadelheim prison were used in the Bartolith factories.
    Father and son, were not held accountable during the De-nazification proceedings in 1948 because of no deaths of prisoners while managing the company Bartolith. In 1967, however, Johann Leitmeier, [whom he wanted released from Dachau.sic] accused and charged Norbert Seidl, at the Munich public prosecutor's office for ill-treatment of prisoners in sub-camp Bartolith. After further investigation, the procedure was terminated in 1970, because no killings were committed by him.
    The Central office of the Landesjustizverwaltung led after 1973 another Re-investigation, but in 1974 joined the judicial decision of the regional court Munich and ceased further proceedings. Commander August Müller was sentenced to ten years' imprisonment in the context of the Dachauer trials.

    Author Herman Text: Sabine Schalm








    Sources/Acknowledgements:                                                   
    Wikipedia
    Scrapbook Pages Blog
    Der Ort des Terrors, Pages 430 -
    Vol 2 C.H.Beck, München 2005


    Translated from German by:
     Stolpmann,Herbert Karl Walter
     von Waldeck
    Design:d-stolpmann@gmail.com     Continued under Part 18