Friday, August 19, 2016


Alphabetical Order  
E- F


Ellwangen in Würtenberg located 100 kilometres from Stuttgart was first mentioned in in its capacity as a sub-camp of Dachau KZ on July 1, 1941, and existed until October 17, 1942. It was not an independent camp, but was domiciled  within the SS-barracks of Ellwangen. The sub-camp was opened up with a prisoner transport of 25 men from Dachau at the beginning of Juli1941. This first transport followed a little later with another ten prisoners. Thus the total number of prisoners amounted to 35

In Ellwangen polish prisoners, 'criminals' and 'anti-socials' were present. Among them, except for a few Checks and Poles there were no others than German prisoners, and  no Jews. The sub-camp was housed in the basement of the old administration building of the former police academy, which consisted in total of three bedrooms, a lounge and a toilet. The prisoners were used mainly to work within the SS-Garrison. Ten prisoners were employed as a tailors and shoemakers [it is more likely that they were boot makers, as the SS did not wear shoes,sic] others maintained the uniforms of SS personals, while few worked outside the compound as tilers,at an oven setting company.

ELLWANGEN city centre 

The ever-changing guards were provided by the in Ellwangen stationed in SS Kradschützenbatallion(Motorcycle Protection Battalion) and usually came from the convalescent members of the company. The labour team was led by an Oberscharführer, apparently also from the SS-garrison at Ellwangen. In July 1942 he was replaced by an Oberscharführer transferred from Dachau to Ellwangen, who was considered as cruel (grausam) by the inmates. Still, the work management after this replacement for  the men in the sub-camp remained the same. Whether this division of authority over labour deployment was responsible for fair treatment of prisoners can only be assumed, as it was difficult to have it verified. The blatantly as cruel SS-man towards prisoners, the Oberscharführer from Dachau, could only unfold his influence outside the camp's activities.During questioning of the prisoners In Ellwangen they knew nothing on the question of inmate killings, nothing was known to them, although the number of prisoners fell form the beginning of this Arbeitskommandos until its dissolution on 17th October 1942. Individual statements of detainees claimed that some prisoners were returned to Dachau  or transferred to other concentration camps. At Dachau two transferred detainees have been shot, whether by operations there or on the initiative of the Ellwanger security personnel could not be clarified. The Oberscharführer from Dachau drcided to have the sub-camp dissolve by October 11942 and the prisoners returned because it was  not a war effort function that they performed in Ellwangen.
The Central Office of the State Justice Administration  (tionandesjutizverwaltungen) in Ludwigsburg,pronounced to close in 1973 regarding the events in the sub-camp Ellwangen without any results. At present the  Bundeswehr is using the former garrison,  there is no sign or memory of the past.

Author German text: Immo Eberl

 After World War II members of the 17th SS Panzergrenadier Division were convicted of a number of war crimes, involving the shooting of foreign concentration camp prisoners in Ellwangen during the war. [ Reference:ase Nr.111". Justiz und NS-Verbrechen (Nazi Crimes on Trial) Vol. III. Retrieved 23 July 2015.]

Postmark from the Ukrainian DP Camp in EllwangN
In April 1945, US Army troops occupied Ellwangen and until 1946, stationed various Army units at the kaserne — the former German Tank School. From 1946 the International Refugee Organisation (IRO) used the kaserne as a displaced persons camp for 3,000 Ukrainian refugees until 1951. In 1951, the US Army — the combat engineer battalion and medical battalion of the 28th Infantry Division again took over the facility. In September 1955 the Americans returned the kaserne to the German government


In Eschelbach at Wiolnzach 50 kilometres north of Dachau, Salesian Sisters cared for and were nursing outpatients, maintained  a kindergarten and taught home economics at their school. Originating from the middle of the 19th century the building served after the outbreak of war as 'resettlement camp'. On 27 July 1944, the Sisters received from Martin Bormann's Party Chancellery in Berlin the eviction notice. The buildings were urgently needed for 'war effort purposes'. In the courtyard of the Eschelbacher Don Rosco home a one-story, surrounded with a barbed wire fence,  a one-story barrack was erected. From December 12, 1944 approximately 40 prisoners of the KZ-Dachau were there quartered. They came from Germany, France, Italy, Poland, Serbia and Holland and were housed under the most primitive hygienic conditions and grossly inadequate provisions. The detainees should lay underground cables up to the city of Pfaffenhofen.
[The women's institute is known as the Salesian Sisters of Don Bosco or, more officially, the Daughters of Mary Help of Christians, (FMA sic]).

City Hall at Eschelbach
The then 23 year-old Polish prisoner Grzegorz Niemirowicz said after the war that the labour assignment was done by a detachment commander and was supervised by four other SS men. He himself had never witnessed any mistreatment, but a friend of his, observed that a German prisoner had been shot during the cable laying by an SS man. A witness reported that Eschelbacher women have given the prisoners secretly bread.
The sub-camp Eschelbach was dissolved on 4 April 1945th. The detainees were transferred back to the main camp Dachau. After the war the Don-Bosco Sisters returned again to their old premises. No investigation or trial ever took place,  there is nothing that reminds one to a wartime sub-camp.

Author German text: Reinhard Haiplik.

The Salesian Sisters of St John Bosco or Daughters of Mary Help of Christians are the sister order of the Salesians of Don Bosco. They were founded by Saint Maria Mazzarello in 1872 to work alongside Saint John Bosco in his teaching projects in Turin. They continue to be a teaching order worldwide. The sisters use the post nominal F.M.A., Figlie di Maria Ausiliatrice (Daughters of Mary Help of Christians).

Enter picture:

Salesian sister caring for sick and poor in former Madras Presidency, India
The year 1880 saw the second missionary expedition of the Salesian Sisters to Patagonia (Argentina), as they followed their Salesian brothers who had prepared the way for their arrival. In 1881, Mother Mazzarello took ill and died at Nizza Monferrato on May 14, at age 44.[4] At the time of her death there were 26 houses and 166 Sisters. For further reading Google:


In Feldafing. District of Starnberg (Bavaria) was since the spring of 1942, a sub-camp of  KZ Dachau. The first group of approximately 30 prisoners arrived there early April 1942. The camp was probably already closed in January at the beginning of 1945, and the prisoners were transported back to Dachau.
The camp was located on the terrain which at the time stood the 'Reich School of the NSDAP'. The school, 'founded as the National German High School at Lake Starnberg and was in 1934 renamed by the SA the 'National Socialistic  German High school'. It was conceived as an elite school, in which high achiever as future leaders for the Nazi state would be indoctrinated and educated accordingly. However, from 1937/38 the NSDAP began extensive construction measures for new buildings on a large meadow and wooded area (Waldgelände) south of Feldafing. The intended plan remained unfinished. The authority responsible for the Reichsschule construction, was the 'Hoch Tief AG' company with headquarters in Munich.

The camp which was situated away from the construction-project for the school in the north-east of the site, consisting of at least one wooden barrack on a concrete base for the prisoners, the structure was surrounded by a high barbed wire fence e  (possibly electrically charged) , and a second barrack for the guards, this team comprised  of eight to twelve SS men. In the nearby barracks lived civil construction workers.(Arbeiter) .In total there  existed five closely  located (beianander gelegende) barracks where construction workers, prisoners and SS guards were accommodated near to each other. The prisoner barracks had a size of about 20 - 25x4 meters square, divided into two rooms furnished with three-story bunks. The information on the availability of conveniences vary greatly. The minimum number of inmates (Belegunfszahl) which witnesses can recall, was 30 people, the highest at 100. The prisoner Josef Brzezinski indicates that 'later on the number of prisoners rose to about from 100 to 300 [...] in the  two prisoners  barracks that were provided for them'. In rooms they had served as dining and day rooms. There were also a laundry room and an attached toilet. According to the witness Tadeusz Etter, the prisoners had contacts with the 'free workers', while they toiled side by side.

Below are thumbnails of a lettercard postmarked February 14, 1944, from an inmate Stefan Belka, at the "Arbeitskommando Feldafing".

The inmates who came  apparently all from Dachau were mainly used for earth- and levelling work in the development of the site, also in road construction and as some witnesses assert, in the construction of air raid shelters (which can not be verified), and at the end of the war , close to nearby village of Tutzing for tunnelling and working in the Dornier aeroplane plants. Moreover, it reports on the following works: repair of a jump, board on Lake Starnberg, plastering interiors, food transport from Feldafing to Tutzing

Lake Starnberg,
Memorial Cross at the site where the body of King Ludwig II of Bavaria was found in Lake Starnberg, after a struggle with his doctor during an escape attempt from his asylum

The conditions under which the prisoners live and had to work, were cruel. The working day began at 8/9 in the morning and ended at 1830/1900 pm. In its work, the prisoners of the weather were exposed where they seem to provide heat more than made cold. They had hard labor under brutal pressure of the SS men and Kapos afford and suffered from hunger. Some inmates say the food in Feldafing was better than in Dachau, others say the opposite. Tadeusz Etter specifies: 'Before starvation sat in, what saved us prisoners was the opportunity to receive parcels with food from home.
The occupancy of the camp apparently changed often - possibly because many prisoners were not used to the physical hardships they were exposed to, and had to be transferred back to Dachau. It is also noticeable that among the witnesses questioned, that four catholic priests from Poland were three, of whom it was said they had been retrained in Dachau as bricklayers.[This makes seance, as Catholic Priests mainly from Poland built 'Baracke X',sic] In camp there were mainly Germans also  Italians, French and Greeks, but apparently mostly were East Europeans.

.Baracke X, at KZ Dachau, which Polish Priests, retrained as bricklayers, allegedly built.
The barracks were required after the dissolution of the camp in January 1945, together with the former buildings of the Reichsschule since the occupation of Feldafing by the US Army, and was converted as a camp for Displaced Persons (DP). After 1956,  part and  most of the former property, reverted back to the Federal Republic of Germany, with the Bundeswehr  continued a military base with a Telecommunication School and a Technical School for Electrical Engineering were opened. The concrete bases and some of the barrack walls stood there for sometime, well after the war, before some years later there has been near the lower Thurn- and Taxis-Street a housing estate developed.
In March 1969, the Central Office of the Landesjutizverwaltungen began to determine the elucidation of Nazi crimes for killing action in the sub-camp Feldafing. A mediation was initiated by the prosecutor at the regional court of Munich against Alfred Minik and others on suspicion of murder up to 1976. The proceedings, set on 28 July 1978 closed without a verdict.

Author German Text: Ursula Ludz


In Fischbachau within the county of  Miesbach (Upper Bavaria) had from 21 September 1944 until January 21, 1945, a sub-camp under the administration of KZ-Dachau. These prisoners had to build makeshift homes (Behilfsheime) made of wood with a brick foundation. According to statements made by a former inmate they were intended for families of senior SS officers from Munich. During the existence of this sub-camp, the detained men built two properties for four families. In this camp the make-up of these men were mainly German, Austrian, Italian, French and Polish political prisoners and few Jehovah's Witnesses, used as 'forced labour'.. There are no indications that Inmate Functionaries  or Kapos were present. The men were mostly skilled workers, who had been selected based on their occupation.
The prisoners were in housed  in three OT huts [Organisation Todt, sic] which are small dwellings made of pressed paper boards with a ceiling height of approximately 1.60 Metre, which had been built on the cow pasture of a local farmer. In each cabin slept six or seven men. Although the prisoners had to work hard, but received special rations (Sonderverpflegung), so they felt the conditions in the camp as bearable. 'In Fischbachau was by far the best treatment of all camps, where I have been.' judged an inmate. [Statement by Georg J.29.10.1969, in: ibid

Panorama view of Fischbachau

The guards consisted of six SS men who did not harass, neither ill-treat or kill any inmates. This was confirmed by all those that had been interviewed. The guards themselves were also housed in identical OT-huts as the prisoners.Other security personnel were  SS- Corporal Hans Tiedtke, and Sergeant Albert Hummel. Tiedtke was transferred after being wounded on the Eastern Front in 1944 to guard duty in Fischbachau.
All the prisoners were returned on 21 January 1945 in trucks to the main camp Dachau. There were no longer any further  construction possible because of the harsh winter conditions.
After the war, the buildings were occupied by refugees. In Even today, both houses are inhabited. In 1959 the farmers whose land was confiscated because of the construction (and partially compensated) had their land returned.
The standard investigations by the Central Office of Justice in Ludwigsburg ceased in 1976.

Author German Text: Barbara Hutzemann


In Fischen im Allgäu was a sub-camp for male prisoners, it is first mentioned on the  date of 6 November 1944. Presumably it originated as a sub-camp in August or September 1944 as an external working commando of some 20 kilometres north located sub-camp of Kottern because the prisoners came mainly from Kottern and also from Ulm. Probably the four barracks of the camp were outside the township near the railway station. The sub-camp was mentioned in the Quadrennial of the Dachau camp doctor 27 March 1945, which reads: 'The camp is still under construction and does give a primitive impression. From the point of view of the local camp leader, Listening to the same lamentations  as in Kottern: 'No deliveries of building materials by Messerschmitt'. About the situation of the prisoners, the Dachau camp doctor judged: - 'The conditions certainly euphemistically - as follows; 'The food is good and plentiful. The kitchen and food storage in a proper state. The ablution and washing facilities are primitive. The infirmary is operating on a makeshift basis. Delousing equipment, although essential are still missing'.
Detainees reported in contrast of holes in the roofs of the huts, dirt, vermin, and living on starvation rations.

Map-Location of Fischen within Oberallgäu district 
On average about 250 prisoners were detained, who came from Germany, Austria, the Soviet Union, Italy, France and Poland. Like the prisoners of the sup-camp at Kaufbeuren they worked in Fishing in the Messerschmitt works, where they toiled  in alternative  day and night shifts producing airframes for fighter planes. They were also used on road construction. About the third of April the workforce of prisoners in the sub-camp stood at 245, at the end of April 1945, only 127 were left. A part of the camp was evacuated in early April, and transferred into the camp at Kottern. In Fishing the dissolution phenomena became noticeable. The Camp Commandant Schmidt left with most of the security guards and did leave the prisoners to their fate.

After the  Central Agencies in Ludwigsburg advised the Munich prosecutor to proceed with it's investigation of criminal activities at Fischen against 'UNKNOWN' (Unbekannte), However, this was ceased in 1977. Most of the living  survivors testified no homicides ever took place. IYet it should be  remembered that prisoners were punished for food theft and escape attempts, Certain is, that on 7 April 1945 two prisoners from sub-camp Fischen were to the main camp Dachau, reported as dead. . Furthermore, prisoners were shot on the evacuation march, but it can no longer be determined, whether a death march actually had taken place. What is certain, that two Austrian resistance fighters Franz Storkan and Gustav Teply, from the sub-camp Fischen , were hanged near the crematorium at Dachau KZ on 7 April 1945th Teply had been brought despite his sickness from the infirmary by the SS to Dachau for the hanging. [Both had been members of the Thälman-Brigade fighting in Spain, taken prisoners and as German citizen under a death sentence as an enemy (Communists) of the state,sic]To date, the foundations of the cams in the forest alongside the railway tracks between fishing and Oberstdorf are recognizable and wall remainsstill visual-able. A plaque or another public reminder of the existence of a sub-camp does not exist.

Author German Text: Edith Raim


The sub-camp Fischhorn was located on the western outskirts of Bruck on the  Grossglocknerstrasse, five kilometres from the county town of Zell am See in Salzburg. The entire site of the prisoner barracks is no longer visible. The staff of the SS was at that time accommodated at the Fischhorn castle.
In Fischhorn existed two sub-camps: one at the Central Construction Office of the Waffen which was part of the SS-WVHA Office Group 'C' and a second camp which was controlled by the  SS Remonte Office. (Cavalry training for a horses) On the entire complex of the Estate, there were 100 horses housed. Both sub-camps were opened on the  6th September 1944, and existed until the Liberation in May 1945
The castle belonged together with an operating agricultural Estate to the former German Ambassador in Peru, N. Gildermeister. The property was expropriated in 1943 and requisitioned by the SS. The Staff of an SS division and the SS Remonte-Office moved into the Castle. According to the former prisoner Franc Mlinaric about 50 SS men were stationed there.
The first Kommandant was the 50-year-old Hans Hahn, who had been in the KZ's of  Flossenburg and Dachau and had done duties as a security guard since 1939 and was put into this position at at Fischhorn, but was replaced due to rivalries with SS cavalry unit on 10 February 1945 by Oberführer Hermann Rostek, who had previously been commander in Roddolfzell. The number of SS-guards can not be specified. They were Volksdeutsche, ethnic  Germans,, whom the prisoners termed as 'Bessarabia-Germans' from Romania, mostly young people aged around 20 years as they recall. A personal or spatial subdivision of the prisoner commands can no longer be traced, and it seems unlikely that such a document ever existed. All the billing invoices for Fischhorn were submitted separately. This might be confusing as the command of the central building site managed within the Office of Group C-Dachau  in February 1045, and was by far largest, while requests of KZ-Workers for the SS Remonte-Department went direct to the SS agencies.

Castle Fischhorn with Meier House (right foreground)
The size of the labour commando was made up of 150 male inmates. As far as nationality structure is concerned, prisoners from the Sowjet Union outweighed them all, followed by the French, Poles and Italians. The first transport of 50 prisoners is recorded to have arrived on the 9th September 1944, a second with 100 prisoners followed on 18 September. Kapo was probably the 44 year old, on  preventive detention, Karl Herkert from Hamburg. The age of the other prisoners was between 18 and 35 years. The individual working commandos remained static in the meantime time and was reduced only in the last weeks before the liberation by half. During the  liberation only 50 prisoners were found at Fischhorn sub-camp. Five of them were interviewed after 1969 even though they had settled in foreign countries while investigations of the German Public Prosecutor took place.

The prisoners were used to build stables for the SS Horse Riding School and worked as well in small work details in the agriculture part of the Estate.The prisoner Mllinariic worked in a detail, in which a group of eight prisoners about 300 meters from the camp, in a remote creek and dug building material. The prisoners at work stood in the water and had only  canvas shoes as footwear. They had no mechanical tools available to them. In autumn 1944 Karl Koch was transferred from the sub-camp Neustift to Fischhorn, he stated that he oversaw a work detail in Zell am See which built large halls for the 'Remonte School, which were then used as warehouses. According to Koch, the commando was billeted in the attic of the Economic Operation Dpt.of Castle Fischhorm.

Spanish Riding School Lipizzan stallions in the Winter Riding School arena
This young Lipizzan stallion is midway through the graying process

This young Lipizzan stallion is midway through the graying proces

 The living and sleeping facilities of  the prisoners were in a deplorable state. According to inmate Mllmaric they lived 'in an assembled wooden barrack , with simple plain  walls that had cracks in them,which meant, it was continually drafty. The flooring was uneven, and mainly buckled in most places. Basically the barracks were very cold. We had only one oven for heating. [...] However, the furnace heated not much, since it was the only one in the 20 meter long barrack'. The washing facilities existed for the occupants only in the water-trough of the horses. There was an  outside sheltered hut for  prisoner which served as a latrine. A similar picture is mentioned in the Quadrennial of the SS camp physician dated 27 March 1945, that Fischhorn was in a primitive state. There was a lack of appropriate accommodation ', and also the infirmary was only was only operating on a makeshift basis.  The toilet facilities were insufficient and unhygienic. Th kitchen operation on the whole unclean.

Concentration Camp Toilets 
Among these living and working conditions, the prisoners lost more and more in weight, and suffered fromnumerous diseases. 'We all lived under very difficult conditions and poor working arrangements, so that the work meant a gradual physical exhaustion of the prisoners. We were undernourished, without any health-care. The lice bit deeply until the blood flowed'.so stated inmate Mllinaric who contracted Pneumonia  and injuries to his Ribcage combined with high fever, 'received no warm place to lie down and no extra clothes. After 20 days of the establishment of the camp,15 inmates were returned due to illness to the main camp (Stammlager) Dachau and on the 30 September 1944 replaced by the same number of new prisoners, all between the ages of 18 and s4 years Three of-exchanged returnees died soon afterwards in Dachau. One further exchange of 15 prisoners rook place, according to Karl Koch in the fall 1944. The new arrivals however were together with their guards transferred from the sub-camp Neustift. Only one prisoner has died from poor living condition in Fischhorn. Targeted (gezielte) killings of prisoners were not observed, so that the investigation of the German post-war Public Prosecutor were not perused.. Fischhorn in Austria offered under all other controlled sub-camps by Dachau, except Weißsee the worst (schlechteste) of living conditions for inmates.inmates..schlecteste
During July 1945 Fischhorn Castle  was together with the Country Estate  returned to it's former owner N. Gildermeister. After his dearh the Castle went to his descendants, it is now in privately owned. (In Privatbesitz)

Author German Text: Albert Knoll

Der Ort des Terrors, Vol.:2-page 325
Verlag C.H.BeckMünchen 2005
Translated from German by:
Herbert Stolpmann von Waldeck

                                                                           Continued under Part 4

Obergruppenführer Hermann Otto Fegelein also became the Commandant of the SS Horse Farm at Fischhorn Castle near Zell am See, Austria. Although he had a house with his wife, a love-nest apartment in Berlin, and a bedroom in Hitler's underground bunker below the Reich Chancellery, it was the farm where he was in charge and had his best friends. The day-to-day operation of the horse farm was managed by Erwin Haufler. The administrative officer was Franz Konrad, of Warsaw ghetto fame, who skimmed almost a million dollars off the top of the Nazi loot and buried it in various relatives' yards. Heinrich Himmler had a safe and many steel filing cabinets in the castle during the time it was the SS horse farm.
Hermann Fegelein as SS-Standartenführer
Fegelein  was a senior officer of the Waffen-SS in Nazi Germany, a member of Adolf Hitler's entourage, and brother-in law to Eva Braun through his marriage to her sister, Gretl. However, he probably died before Braun married Hitler, and details of his death are controversial.
Early career
Fegelein was born in Ansbach in Bavaria. As a young boy he worked at his father's horse riding school in Munich. When it closed due to the world-wide economic depression of the 1920s, he worked as a stable boy for Christian Weber, who in the 1930s was one of the original members of the Nazi Party.
In 1925, Fegelein joined the Reiterregiment 17, leaving it in 1928 to join the Bavarian State Police in Munich. Whilst in Munich, he came into early contact with National Socialism, joining the Party (membership number 1,200,158) and the SA in 1930. By 1931, Fegelein had transferred to the SS.
A note on his rank. Calling Fegelein an Obergruppenführer is not exactly accurate. Most SS officers had two ranks, one for the Waffen-SS, the other for the Allgemeine SS. The Waffen-SS rank was usually higher than the rank of the Allgemeine SS. Fegelein's actual rank was "SS Gruppenführer and Generaleutnant der Waffen-SS." His last film appearance was in a Nazi newsreel shot on Hitler's birthday (April 20, 1945). This is the infamous newsreel where Hitler is giving iron crosses to children for destroying Red Army tanks with the German antitank weapon known as the Panzerfaust. Fegelein is in the background; his plainly visible collar tabs are those of a Gruppenführer.
SS membership
On July 25, 1937, Reichsführer SS Heinrich Himmler, by special order of the Oberabschnitt (SUD), created the SS Main Riding School in Munich and made Hermann Fegelein the School Commander. Only former royalty from the Hohenzollern and Kaiserzeit dynasties could send representatives, along with the top heads of German industry, who donated to Martin Bormann's German industry fund. Hermann requested his friend, Captain Marten von Barnekow, be allowed to enter the horse riding school, and Himmler granted his request.
Fegelein rose quickly through the ranks and was briefly sent to the Russian front in 1943 with the Florian Geyer Cavalry Division, along with members of his SS Riding School (Haupt-Reitschule München). He had served under Reinhard Heydrich, and being an SS officer, was involved in the Nazi rituals at Wewelsburg Castle. The Florian Geyer is reputed to have murdered thousands of innocent civilians in the Pripet Marshes while under Fegelein's command.
Relationship with Himmler
Fegelein was nicknamed Heinrich Himmler's "golden boy"; his boyish face and subservient attitude gained him considerable favour with Himmler, who treated him like a son. Himmler granted him the best assignments (mostly related to horses), the best staff and generous budgets. When he was injured on the Russian front, Himmler brought him home to work in Hitler's staff as Himmler's adjutant and representative of the Waffen SS.
Already the holder of the Knight's Cross with Oak Leaves, Fegelein received an ever greater distinction with the award of the Swords to his Knight's Cross on 30 July 1944. Heinrich Himmler also presented him with a gold-plated Walther P-38 pistol with a mother-of-pearl handle, decorated with oak leaves, and Fegelein's name carved on it, and bearing the inscription Meine Ehre heißt Treue ("loyalty is my honor") on the barrel.
His politically arranged marriage took place on June 3, 1944, and a two-day celebration was held at Hitler's and Martin Bormann's Obersalzberg mountain homes. It was the largest, longest and most publicized, purely social event Hitler ever attended. Photographs of the wedding dinner appeared in Britain's weekly Picture Post Magazine the next year after the war ended, showing Hitler at the festivities. A marriage license was obtained at the local town clerk's office and Heinrich Himmler presided over the simple ceremony in which a Pagan ritual substituted for exchanging wedding rings. This ceremony was photographed and filmed by the Nazis.
Hitler had been actively trying to find a husband for Gretl for some time—doing so would provide a valid reason for presenting Eva Braun to visitors and bringing her to official functions. Prior to the marriage, Hitler often forced Braun to hide herself from other Nazi officials when they visited.

Gretl Braun had an extremely bad reputation as being promiscuous—within the SS, she was nicknamed "the nymphomaniac of the Obersalzberg." Hitler had earlier tried to marry her off to a Captain Fritz Darges, but Darges actually asked to be sent to fight in the Eastern Front rather than marry her. Moreover, at the time of the marriage, Gretl Braun was pregnant by a man other than Fegelein.

Gretl with her second husband, Kurt Berlinghoff
Fegelein became known as the playboy of the Third Reich, and after his marriage to Gretl Braun, engaged in numerous extramarital affairs.
Nonetheless, Hitler was apparently aware of Fegelein's dalliances, and while not entirely approving, turned a blind eye to them. This was common within Hitler's inner circle. Martin Bormann had 10 children with his wife and also kept a mistress, while Heinrich Himmler had children with both his wife and mistress.
Large amounts of looted gold, museum-quality artwork, and other valuable movable assets changed hands here in late April 1945. At this time most of the top Nazi military officers met here to launder their gold, money, looted jewelry from concentration camp victims, stolen artwork and other valuables, and to receive new identification papers and passports to allow them to flee to other countries after Germany's official capitulation. According to published interviews with Allied soldiers, SS-Standartenführer Waldemar Fegelein (Hermann's brother) was stationed at Fischhorn Castle in April 1945 along with other SS officers, and was believed to have received shipments from his brother in Berlin containing personal possessions of Eva Braun and some of the looted artwork of Hermann Göring. The Fegelein brothers' knowledge of the disposition of these shipments was another reason they were actively sought by the Allies at the end of the war.
From January to April 1945, Fegelein and Martin Bormann controlled access to Hitler's office. After Fegelein's boss, Heinrich Himmler, tried to negotiate a backdoor surrender to the Allies via Count Bernadotte in April 1945, Fegelein left the Reich Chancellery bunker and was caught by SS-Obersturmbannführer Peter Högl in his Berlin apartment apparently preparing to flee to Sweden or Switzerland with cash and forged passports in civilian clothes with his Hungarian mistress. He was also, according to all accounts, highly intoxicated when arrested and brought back to the bunker.
At this point, historical accounts begin to differ radically. In The Last Days of Hitler, historian Hugh Trevor-Roper remarked:
The real causes and circumstances of the execution of Fegelein provide one of the few subjects in this book upon which final certainty seems unattainable.
Journalist James O'Donnell discovered in his interviews numerous claims and theories as to what happened next to Fegelein, many of which disagreed with each other, and some of which seemed preposterous (i.e., a claim that Hitler himself gunned Fegelein down). Many claimed he had been shot following a court-martial, and this theory predominated for many years. General Wilhelm Mohnke, who presided over the court-martial, told O'Donnell the following:

Hitler ordered me to set up a tribunal forthwith. I was to preside over it myself...I myself decided the accused man deserved trial by high-ranking officers. The panel consisted of four general officers - Generals Wilhelm Burgdorf, Hans Krebs, Johann Rattenhuber, and me...We did, at that moment, have every intention of holding a trial.

General Wulhelm Burgdorf
What really happened was that we set up the court-martial in a room next to my command post...We military judges took our seats at the table with the standard German Army Manual of Courts-Martial before us. No sooner were we seated than defendant Fegelein began acting up in such an outrageous manner that the trial could not even commence.
Roaring drunk, with wild, rolling eyes, Fegelein first brazenly challenged the competence of the court. He kept blubbering that he was responsible to Himmler and Himmler alone, not Hitler...He refused to defend himself. The man was in wretched shape - bawling, whining, vomiting, shaking like an aspen leaf. He took out his penis and began urinating on the floor...

I was now faced with an impossible situation. On the one hand, based on all available evidence, including his own earlier statements, this miserable excuse for an officer was guilty of flagrant desertion... Yet the German Army Manual states clearly that no German soldier can be tried unless he is clearly of sound mind and body, in a condition to hear the evidence against him. I looked up the passage again, to make sure, and consulted with my fellow judges...In my opinion and that of my fellow officers, Hermann Fegelein was in no condition to stand trial, or for that matter to even stand. I closed the proceedings...So I turned Fegelein over to General Rattenhuber and his security squad. I never saw the man again. (O'Donnell, The Bunker, 1978).
Many other people in the bunker argued that Mohnke was lying, that he had in fact had Fegelein killed, and only made the above statement to try and extricate himself from any guilt.

This situation was complicated by the fact that Mohnke was the only survivor of the supposed court martial—Hans Krebs and Wilhelm Burgdorf both committed suicide by May 2. Although Johann Rattenhuber survived, he was captured by the Red Army, kept in custody until the 1950s, and died shortly after being released (and before he could be interviewed about Fegelein).

However, as O'Donnell noted, nobody actually saw Fegelein's execution (or, if they did, they weren't talking). O'Donnell and many historians, with the evidence at hand, agreed with Mohnke, and have concluded that Fegelein was doomed because of a combination of Himmler's betrayal and suspicions that Fegelein's mistress was a spy. Fegelein, then, was killed without a proper trial on Hitler's orders, probably hanged by members of the SS in a nearby cellar. Furthermore, O'Donnell noted that Hitler held off on his marriage to Eva Braun until after he was satisfied Fegelein was dead—a means of ensuring that he would not have a "traitor" as a brother-in-law.
Eva Braun in 1942
Some survivors of the bunker say Eva Braun pleaded to Hitler to spare her new brother-in-law, Hermann, and some say she did not speak a word in his defense. There is agreement among bunker survivors that, when Fegelein was first arrested, Braun did inform Hitler that her sister was pregnant, and that this apparently led Hitler to initially consider releasing him without punishment. However, there is no agreement on whether she said anything once Hitler condemned him to death.
Both Fegelein's parents survived the war and claimed to have received messages (via a third party) that he was continuing resistance underground. His wife, who inherited some of her sister Eva's valuable jewelry (of questionable provenance), also survived the war and gave birth to a daughter (named Eva after her late aunt) whose true parentage is the subject of some speculation and who committed suicide in 1975.
The fate of the baby with which Fegelein's wife was pregnant at the time of their marriage is unknown. Some members of Hitler's entourage claimed she had an abortion with the aid of Theodore Morell, one of Hitler's doctors.
However, claims of his parents not withstanding, all evidence indicates that Fegelein was dead by April 29, 1945, and no bunker witnesses have ever suggested otherwise.


Friday, August 5, 2016


Alphabetical Order         
D - E

DACHAU - The Entomological Institute

Why did the SS need an entomological institute?  Was it a Research Centre for Biological Warfare  as some Authors claim? Google: The Entomological Institute of the Waffen-SS: Evidence for offemsive biological warfare research in the third Reich

In January 1942, the Reichsführer SS Heinrich Himmler ordered during a telephone conversation with the Head of the Research Department of the SS, the 'Ahnenerbe'(Ancestral Heritage), Wolfram Sievers, the creation of a new Institute for the Study and Control of vermin insects like bugs, lice , fleas, mosquitoes, harmful to humans and others. On February 10, 1942 Dr Edmund May took over the position as director of the Entomological Institute. The then  unknown scientist was neither a  party member nor a  members of the SS, but a prominent and well known zoologist with wide studies in the natural sciences Mathematic, Physic, Chemistry, Botanic, Geology and Palaeontology.  In March 1942,Dr.  May habituated in Munich for natural philosophy and history of science.

To settle the decision to locate  the Entomological Institute in Dachau, was made in April 1942, on the one hand because of existing medical facilities in the camp  and secondly because Professor Carl Schilling, who worked in the concentration camp  on experiments with malaria mosquitoes on detainees.The Section SS- WVHA in Berlin hoped for a  close cooperation between the two scientists Schilling and May.

The Entomological Institute, were assigned a plot of land right next to the Dachau concentration camp the the former 'Alte Römer Strasse', today it is 'Würmmühle 4'. What was planned were two wooden barracks, in the larger one it was planned to have the Laboratories and offices and in the smaller one the accommodation for scientists. However, the construction of the barracks went ahead initially at snails pace, depressed because there were supply difficulties of building materials in the third year of the war. This resulted that one and a half years after Himmler's instructions, only pipes  for water and lines for electricity had been laid. The workers for the construction were provided by the concentration camp in the form of a 30-men prisoner work  detail (Arbeitskommando). The Entomological Institute took up its laboratory activities not until 1944. Until then, Dr. May''s office was provisionally housed at the Plantation at Dachau KZ..

Since March 1943 the Prehistory Professor,Dr. Rudolf Schütrumpf who had worked for the 'Ahnenerbe' since 1938, became the first secretary to Dr. Edmund May. Next to him were less skilled scientists, a total of eight assistants and some  'amateur biologists' were hired which was at that time the entire staff employed by the Institute, these people had been exempted from their SS- or/and police duties. Human experiments on prisoners of Dachau concentration camp were indeed planned by Sievers, but were not carried out.[For further study on 'Ahnenerbe' read:]
In addition to the prisoners, who had built as a Baukommando the two barracks at Würmmühle, four women prisoners were semt to  the Institute, Else S. ,, Olga N., Martha K, and Ottelie A, they came on 11 September 1944 from the Ravensbrück concentration camp to Dachau. The four 'Jehovah Witnesses' were two days in Dachau locked in the bunker before they were taken to the nearby Institute. Here, the women were housed in barrack of the  research facilities in a single room. At the Institute they were used for cleaning and other tasks to keep the place tidy.[Their basic functions was that of Maids and Housekeepers,sic] They were allowed to wear civilian clothes, did not work on Sunday's and could move freely. Martha K. described that the women completed for the scientists also errands in the town of Dachau. The women prisoners appear to have been treated well by all the staff of the Institute. There was neither a leader nor command guards who supervised the women ..
The IBT Entomological Institute existed until the end of the war with an unchanged occupancy. The women prisoners were not evacuated to the main camp, as was customary,  but released at the Würmmühle by American troops.

The Würmmühle next to KZ Dachau and part of the SS=Complex

  The living quarters of the Institute was in 1945 demolished, while in the former research barracks became a home for German  refugees and survivors of the Dachau concentration camp were housed.until 1965, the second shack was torn down, on the site now stands  a residential property.
After the war, against Dr. Edmund Nay no investigation was conducted because of his affiliation with the 'Ahnenerbe' after. He already held at the end of 1945 lectures at the University of Munich and in 1951 as ordinary Professor of  philosophy at the Free University of  Berlin. Dr. Schütrumpf lived after the war in Cologne and in 1970 was appointed as 'aussenplanmässigen'  (unscheduled) Professor.

Professor Claus Karl Schilling had hardly any association with the Institute, however,in the course of the Dachau Trials following the liberation of the camp at the close of the war, Schilling was tried by an American tribunal, with an October 1945, an  affidavit from Schilling being presented in the proceedings.[Using humans as guinea pigs in his 'research' to find an anti-body or serum against malaria.sic]
The tribunal sentenced Schilling to death by hanging on 13 December 1945. His execution took place at Landsberg Prison in Landsberg am Lech on 28 May 1946. See:

       Professor Schilling on the gallows to be dropped to hang  at Landsberg am Lech

Author German Text: Sabine Schalm

Up to today there is no evidence of offensive biological warfare research in Germany after the unsuccessful attempts of German biosabotage in WWI. It is a pitty that the misleading heading of Reinhardt ‘s article similar to other disinformation campaigns are favored by some media’s apparent craving for a breaking story that often supersedes thorough investigation.sic


About the sub-camp on the Estate of the Pollnhof in Dachau only fragmented statements are made today. Just the Investigation , in the 1970s by the Central Office in Ludwigsburg, give an approximate insight into the activities on the Pollnhof. The Estate belonged to one of the agricultural holdings within the immediate environment of Dachau concentration camp, which the SS owned, managed and administered. Further examples are the plantation acreages with the Kräutergarten  (herb garden) or the Liebhof, a somewhat larger Estate in Dachau. On the Pollnhof (today SteinerNo.:+ 16) worked prisoners from the KZ,  in various commandos at agricultural work. Stanislaw F. was according to his own statement already there in 1942 with approximately 50 other inmates, who would start at at six in the morning, accompanied by SS guards and walked the 1,5 Kilometre distance to the Pollnhof Estate. Once thee, the prisoners worked, either jointly or separately in small groups at agricultural activities. In the evining they would march back to the camp, in time for the evening Roll Call. Sundays was not a workday.

Manor House (Sclösschen) Pollnhof Steiner 16, as it is today, now in private hands, still selling agriculture products in a minor way, I went there few times in  the 1950's, to buy vegetables, but no other properties exist then. It did not look like this at all!, this was a dirt road before you had to cross the Pplln-Bach (Creek), which eventually emerged via underground culvert at the western entrance of Camp Dachau
The manor was led by a Sergeant, by the  name of Reise. He was also responsible for the distribution of work to be done and divided the prisoners into several teams.. A detachment commander did not exist on the Pollnhof but ten SS men who guarded the prisoners in the work was always present. The composition of the guards changed daily. While there were no killings of prisoners on the Pollnhof are known, but wines reports indicate of server mistreatments. If a prisoner was ought stealing a carrot or a potato on the field, he was immediately beaten on the spot and subsequently taken off the the working Kommando. Returning to the camp the delinquent would receive an additional beating (Prügelstrafe).
For a period of about four weeks from March 1945, alongside the daily coming and returning inmate commando from the camp, there was a permanent satellite camp on the estate for a limited period. Josef S. remembers that the six other Polish POW s and a Kapo was housed in a small room next to the horse stables. The approximate  opening date is given as  March 1 145, there was a good reason for this change. The prisoners were quartered on the Pollnhof because of the prevailing Typhoid fever epidemic in the Stammlager (Nain Camp). During this time, the eight prisoners took care exclusively of the horses on the farm. After four weeks, these prisoners continued to work on the farm, but they were then as the remaining commando again housed in the concentration camp.
About the fate of work commando Pollnhof survivors report that they marched out of the camp until 25 April 1945 to the farm. The inmate file of the  Polish protective custody prisoner Stanislaus Kiszka contains the the entry 'freed Pollnhof' (befreit Pollnhof). This is the only indication that, even after the 25th April 1945, there  were one or maybe several prisoners still working on the estate.
The old manor house still stands but is now a residential building surrounded by a densely built apartment area.

Author German Text: Sabine Schalm


Ludwig Nachtmann founded in  1933 the Schraubenfabrik (Srew Factory) Präzifix GmbH(Ltd) in the Münchner Straße at Dachau. Since the war began they specialized particularly in special screws for aircraft engines. In 1940 Gustav Adolf Heyer from  Berlin took over the company. and moved the production in the following year to the new factory in the Johann Ziegler Street. (Plant 1) The Präzifix GmbH was an important supplier to the  Messerscmitt-Werke and the Bavarian Motoren Werke (BMW), and had already received in 1941 permission to build a factory on thearea of Flosslände, which was on the SS Exercise and Training Camp. The then existing ammunition bunkers were connected a single-storey barrack in which apart from some civilian  labourers, with the intention  to employ exclusively inmates of he Dachau KZ. Before the sub-camp was built in 1940 twelve prisoners worked for the Präzifix GmbH (Ltd) in the Münchner Straße. However, these prisoners returned every night back into the KZ-Lager. At the Flosslände facilities, there worked since the fall of 1943 a total of 37 prisoners, among them Edgar Kupfer,who was employed as a clerk in the the following three years in the material store office. He kept a secret diary, which has been preserved and is the detailed description of the operations of the commando Präzifix. This narrative is partly based on his writings.

  Invoice by "Präzifix" from April 1943. The company paid 40.15 Reichs Mark to the German Research Institute for nutrition and food. This Institute was Par of the so called Herb Garden of KZ Dachau.
At first, the prisoners still marched from Dachau KZ the 1.5 Kilometre distance to the factory building II (Werk II). After a typhus epidemic in the main camp (Stammlager) beginning in April 1943 wooden barracks were built on the factory premises and a permanent sub-camp was established. Edgar Kupfer wrote in his diary on 7 February 1943 he had for the first time on this date, slept with about 130 other prisoners in the barracks on the factory premises. Further utility barracks were erected., and quickly the the sub-camp was enlarged and  accommodated up to 400 prisoners. In addition, a kitchen block with an annex as a food magazine, a  clothing store room and a residence meeting barrack,(Aufenthaltsbaracke) was added. The camp was fenced with an electric barbed wire fence and surrounded by six occupied with post guard towers. At the watchtowers searchlights were mounted that lit the camp at night.
  At the Flosslände[which was the place of Präzifix,sic] there were insufficient sanitation provisions, which is why the prisoners as from May 1943, under the supervision of the SS took them  on Sunday's to  the main camp (Stammlager) were they made to bathe and had their clothing and undergarments washed. Once a week there was a prisoner-doctor from the KZ to check the health condition of those inmates at camp Präzifix.
The division of labour and supervision was carried out by Dr. Heyer and five to ten civilian employees of the company. Heyer came only irregularly into the Werk II, yet constantly present were the civilian manager Oberkirchner who was responsible for the production and general operation,another three were the  supervisor of quality control Sieifert and Goldap as well as a master electrician. The behaviour of the civilian supervisors towards the detainees was split. Some tried to make the life of the prisoners easier, but others participated in the harassment(Schikanen).
  Among the prisoners were skilled workers like turners and  fitters (Dreher und Sclosser), but also unskilled workers from all parts Europe, the most represented were prisoners from Poland, Czechoslovakia  and Yugoslavia. They worked in twelve-hour day and night shifts, in which prisoners on lathes, milling and grinding machines as well as metal stamping  were engaged in the manufacture of aircraft parts. Most of the daily  civilian workers left the  Flosslände factory as of 1943 while they were either drafted into military service or put to  work I in the works at Johann-Zieglerstrasse. At that time, the inmates took over the Administration of  Werk II by day and night by Kapos, these were in charge of respective shifts. and included Walter Ohldorfer, Christian Weber, Josef Starka, Karl Weber and August Madriz. The monitoring teams,[the guards.sic] with their especially older Air Force members, frequently changed, only the Detachment Commander was constantly present, without any change.. He would take the morning and evening roll call and signed off the number of prisoners present [or missing,sic]. Several Kommandoführer, who were NCO's, except two officers who's.  names are known, they are: SS Oberschadfährer Ernst Angerer ((until end 1943), Unterscharführer Josef Heller, Obersturmführer Arno Lippmann (until August 1844) and Hauptsturmführer John Berndt, The ten to twelve SS guards were living in a barrack outside the camp's fence.

The food in the camp was relatively good, in any case better than in the main camp Dachau. Overseeing the food preparation and the necessary supplies was the responsibility of the prisoner Karl Weller, who oversaw the cooking with four other prisoners. The former prisoner August J. reported that many functionary prisoners in Dachau were trying to accommodate their friends in the camp Präzifix because it was known to be a better IBT. Even J. had come in this roundabout way into the Präzifix sub-camp.
A peculiarity within this camp was the culture barrack (Kultur Baracke) in which the prisoners could be in their free time. On Sundays and public holidays they would here organize theatre events. The various nationalities performed skits and folk dances, and a band played for the prisoners. Director Heyer provided the musical instruments and and took part with his wife in these events. In addition, there was a chorus of about 14 Polish prisoners and a football team that on Sundays participated to play against other teams from the main camp.

In June 1944, Dr. Oskar Eifler, a convinced Nazi, took over the management of Präzifix GmbH. Director Heyer was possibly in conflict with the Gestapo because of favouring inmates as being too lenient towards them, and was transferred early in 1945 to the Eastern Front. ]He soon paid a price for being humane, his life sic] With Eiflers entry into the factory conditions of the prisoners worsened. As three Russian prisoners had toothpaste, soap and pair of shoes stolen, Hauptsturmführer Berndt mistreated the  detainees badly  and put them on the next day for questioning back into the main camp. Only one returned to the sub-camp to be hanged there in front of assembled prisoners. The other two prisoners were hanged as well, one in Mauthausen and other at Nünchen-Allach. [Statement: Walter Eichler 30.11.1946 in:DaA/I, Kupfer-Koberwitz, Dachauer Diary page 372] still the question remains open 'who reported them?' SS-guards did not patrol inside the camp,sic.
The total number of cases of ill-treatment and executions in the camp are well known. At the end  of May it came to an altercation during the construction of a new transformer station, the trouble started among the inmates of the detachment which the team leader reported back to the Dachau KZ, with the result that the  prisoners, two Russians and a Pole were hanged on December 17, 1944 charged with sabotage. To deter the commandos at Präzifix, they had had to watch the hangings.
An air raid in late October 1944,on  a nearby Munition Depot was hit. The explosion destroyed part of the factory  on the Flösslände, 13 prisoners were wounded and some dead had to be taken back to the Main Camp for treatment and disposal of the deceased. Once the damage had been fixed to the barracks, production in Werk II resumed again.

The IBT Präzifix was dissolved on 26 April 1945 and the prisoners returned to the main camp. About half of the inmates had to join in the evacuation march. This group stayed together until the liberation by the Americans near the village of Wolfratshausen.
Director Gustaf Adolf Heyer died in the last days of the war in the front line His superintendent Dr. Otto Eifler was indicted in 1947 Dachau processes, but acquitted. During an investigation by the Munich II Public Prosecutor on Oskar Eifler's participation of murder at the sub camp, was in 1977 suspended and not perused.
The screw factory Präzifix GmbH was able to re-commence in 1945 its production with civil workforce again. Until 1951 they were manufacturing among other items. kitchen scales  and made thread rollers (Gewindewalzen). The entire enter prize was dissolved after the sale to a Munich-based company.

Author German Text: Sabine Schahm


In March 1945, an inmate of the Dachau concentration camp was there and used to oversee the work performance (Arbeitsleitung) for the mayor of Ebersberg. Whether the prisoner remained there overnight or returned daily to Dachau is unknown.
-Author German Text: Christph Bachmann


Yet in the last few weeks before the war ended, a sub-camp of the Dachau KZ was  established in an area near Eching,of the Freising district with about 20 Kilometre distance east of Dachau. It was located on a flat terrain at the Dietersheimer  Strasse between Dietersheim and Neufahrn near the Neufahrner sports field. Two to five wooden barracks including utility barracks such as the kitchen, laundry and infirmary were hiding there in a large gravel pit. The camp was  surrounded with a simple wire fence and had no watchtowers, only searchlights illuminated at night the terrain .
  On 10 April 1945 500 prisoners were brought by train from Dachau to Eching/Neufahrn. They should under the regime of the SS and the Todt Organization, to build on the  south-western side of the camp on the 'Garching Heath' in about two Kilometre distance, a runway for air crafts. They had to first in in an east-west direction, remove the humus layer on a length of 300 Metres and a width of 43 Metre  and level by bulldozing the pitch. North and south of the runway they dug deep foxholes for protection against air attacks. The area was since 1908 the property of the 'Bavarian Botanical Company of Munich'. These leased the entire 'Garching Heath' on July 1, 1936, to the airbase commander. already operating as an emergency landing strip (Notlandung) nearby. In November 1944 the first plans of the air force were implemented to expand the airfield and to use it as a backup runway.

War memorial in front of town hall

The prisoners did belong to different categories of inmates and nationalities. There were Poles, the Czech-Slovaks, Yugoslavs, Russians, Ukrainians, Italians, French and Germans under them. Civilian workers initiated the construction activities. The guards were made up of members of the air force, some members of the SS and older men of the Organisation Todt. Camp Commandant was a native of Karlsruhe, a big grown SS members whose name and rank is unknown, as witnesses were unable to remember.
 When asked about abuse, one prisoner reported of the  standard flogging with 25 strokes by the cane, [all camps had a manual, how to treat inmates, which was originally written by Theodor Eicke when Dachau was first established, but not necessary adhered to,sic] another recalled that, ' if an inmate was not working or interrupted what he was doing, to rest, because it was too heavy for him, the punishment being carried out by the SS men, but sometimes there were also overseer that had been advanced from our own prisoner ranks who did the thrashing'. A prison orderly who supervised the infirmary with a Polish assistant, reported that one day two prisoners who were on an outside work assignment, returned with serious injuries to the infirmary because they had been beaten up by the overseers with strokes by the cane. The witnesses questioned about deaths and executions, but could not remember that any ever took place.
 Two weeks after the establishment of the sub camp, construction work ceased on 24 April 1945. The SS guards had left the camp, only men of the Todt Organisation and Volkssturm members remained. Then some prisoners took the opportunity to flee.

Author German Text: Rudol Goerge

Der Ort des Terrors, Vol.:2-page 309
Verlag C.H.BeckMünchen 2005
Translated from German by:
Herbert Stolpmann von Waldeck



Saturday, July 30, 2016


Alphabetical Order
A - B

The Nazi sub-camp system is largely forgotten by the bulk of the population outside those experts who have studied the holocaust in detail. Ask someone on the street how many Nazi concentration camps they can name and they will probably mention Auschwitz, Dachau and Belsen, and perhaps a few others. Many people don't realise that Dachau alone had over 100 sub-camps under its direct control, or that many of the other well-known concentration camps had similar sub-camp systems. When this is taken into account, suddenly the holocaust becomes a lot more horrific than ever you may have thought before. Following is an attempt to investigate the Dachau sub-camps that aren't well known, the fractured ruins that stand forgotten in fields and woods, areas of now peaceful countryside that once bore witness to massed human tragedy and pain. [A distinction  should be made here between the so-called 'Fremdarbeiter' (Foreign workers) that were mainly recruited from occupied countries through the German 'Arbeitsamt' (Labour Exchange) and were initially not under a KZ-Administration, their well being was the responsibility of the respective employer. sic.] 

Augsburg City:
Beginning of March 1942 a group of about five Jehovah's Witnesses in Augsburg had to demolish an old building and build on that site a new slaughterhouse. The initiative for the compulsory use of prisoners apparently went back to the Sachsenhauser concentration camp commander Hans Loritz. He came namely himself from Augsburg and was friends with one of the supporters of the slaughterhouse. Similar to the case of Sub-Camp St. Gilgen, Loritz chose  Jehovah's Witnesses from the inmates of the Sachsenhausen concentration camp near Berlin but initially had them based at  Dachau. From there, the prisoners were immediately brought to the  new sub-camp on to the site of his Augsburger friends. After completion of the work in the summer of 1942, the SS transported the prisoners back via KZ Dachau main camp back to Sachsenhausen.
It is unclear where exactly the slaughterhouse was located and in which building the prisoners were held. Also about working conditions in this small Augsburg sub-camp is hardly anything known. One of the prisoners, Reinhold Lühring, noted in 1971 that the prisoners had to work every day in a thick cloud of dust in the demolition the old building. He himself had already suffered in Sachsenhausen from loss of appetite and severe pain, which was aggravated by the demolition. The use of prisoners after 1945 has never been the subject of any legal investigations.
Author, German text: Dirk Riedel

 In February 1943, the Messerschmitt AG built a POW facility within a few days as a sub-camp for the Dachau concentration camp. The camp was on the site of a former gravel pit at the Inninger Street, in the then independent municipality of Haunstetten. It was surrounded with a ten feet high barbed wire fence with four watchtowers at the corners and shielded from the outside world. The prisoners were kept in 22 wooden barracks, which were overcrowded and poorly heated in winter. Although the prisoners slept in  individual beds that were equipped with Hessian bags filled with straw and covered with a sheet as a mattress plus a blanket. [This was a standard issue during my training under SS Administration, and I found nothing wrong with it. HKS]  An infirmary was available, however, treatment was confined only to outpatient or minor accidents. For more severe illnesses or injuries which affected prisoners and in most cases had to be transferred back to the main camp at Dachau.
In January 1944, 2,695 detainees were in the camp, at that stage it was already planned to take up to 3,400 people, furthermore the Messerschmitt company sought to expand the capacity to 4,500 prisoners from June 1943. Thereby the camp counted thus to one of the larger sub-camps that worked for the aerospace defence industry within the Reich.
The first 200 prisoners arrived with their guards from the Mauthausen concentration camp, as a procedural method prisoners were first registered, and then transferred officially from Dachau. The detainees belonged to different nationalities. There were mainly German, French, Soviet citizens and Poles. Looking at the SS-categories of prisoners, these were mainly political detainees , but also Gypsies, Jehovah's Witnesses, work-shy individuals and some that were held under the Police Protection Policy.
The prisoners worked almost exclusively in the Messerschmitt factories in Augsburg or rather in the north of Haunstetten at the production program of the Me-210 and Me-410 aircraft. Due to the specific qualification requirements in aircraft manufacture some of the prisoners were not working directly at the aircraft assembly, but done construction work - or other legwork. The concentration camp inmates worked in rotating shifts of twelve hours each from Monday to Friday and Saturdays six hours. Before and after working hours, the prisoners were faced to walk two kilometres back and forth to their camp.
One prisoner reported: 'The daily routine looked like this: By 4.30 am we had to get up and then attended the Appel (Roll call), after that we were divided into labour gangs. Accompanied by guards we were then led to work, past Haunstetten, but it was that early in the day so that the population could take little notice of us. We KZler (prisoners) arrived around four clock in the assembly-hall, the other workers (German civilians) of Messerschmitt began their shift at seven o'clock. The march there and back was carried out again in columns, the SS guarded us with dogs. Once I was bitten by a dog in the hip, but I did not let them treat me, as I was afraid, otherwise be classified as unable to work and to be taken back to Dachau."

A Messerschmitt Bf 109E, a model built at the Haunstetten Messerschmitt facilities. 
The catering for the prisoners was initially prepared and delivered from Dachau, but later on procured with coupons (Rationcards) by the Messerschmitt AG themselves. Meals were prepared in the prisoners' kitchen. At lunchtime, the food was delivered in containers to the factories. According to the memory of a former camp clerk, the Messerschmitt management wanted to obtain additional rations due to the poor nutritional condition of the prisoners, which the concentration camp leadership refused. [Ref.: Letter of Edmund Falkus, 28.3.1989, in: DaA 130 and Jerzy Skrzypek,(not dated) in: ibid 26768.]
The treatment of the prisoners by the company employees seem to be generally been correct. It even happened that company employees despite prohibition of contact or similar provisions were trying to help the prisoners. But there were also complaints by the regular workforce. Denunciation, followed by beatings by the SS for alleged sabotage had also occurred. The SS guards punished and mistreated the prisoners arbitrary. Fear of sabotage charges for minor errors were common among prisoners. It is unclear whether in Haunstetten prisoners were executed or murdered. Some former prisoners report in detail about executions for trying to escape and sabotage allegations, others can not remember that any killings took place.
In the Death Register (Totenbuch) of Dachau, prisoners from sub-camp Haunstetten are frequently listed as deceased. Over one hundred prisoners died as a result of air raids.  Air-raid shelters for prisoners were hardly ever made available during frequent bombings. Factory-owned shelters could be sought only in exceptional cases. 
The Messerschmitt facilities and the surrounding areas were bombed during American and British air raids, which killed 165 people, including 70 prisoners from the Dachau satellite camp during one raid. The American and British bombing raids caused significant damage to the Haunstetten area. Although the exact death toll of captured labourers and prisoners is not known, the war and subsequent bombing raids killed 300 residents and destroyed one quarter of all residences in the area.   
 Map of Haunstetten, Augsburg, Germany  Augsburg-Haunstetten
The cause of death of some other prisoners is unclear. It has been testified that there were suicides in Haunstetten due to hunger, fatigue, penalties and permanent physical, but also mental tension of camp inmates. Who were the camp commandant in Haunstetten, could not be established with certainty in the process. Citing memories of detainees, conditions under camp leader Hauptscharführer Fritz Wilhelm had initially been considered as brutal. Wilhelm was transferred apparently because of the fire of a guard shack and the escape of six prisoners and the murder of a prisoner. Another camp leader was described as a sadistic-jammed individual was Hauptscharführer Betz. Behaviour of the SS-Wachmannschaft is even less known. Only individual names could be ascertained. The investigation by the Central Office of the State Justice Administrations in Ludwigsburg led to no prosecutions.
On the 13th April 1944, the camp was destroyed by an air raid and never rebuilt. The surviving prisoners had to spend the first nights on a nearby shooting range and were then distributed to other sub-camps of the Messerschmitt AG. For example, about 600 survivors came to Gablingen and 398 to Leonberg.
Today the Hermann Fried Street leads to the former camp. One part is built up with houses, on the other part there is a green area with a playground.  Memorials have been erected as a reminder of the victims among the inmates. An initiative is also under way trying to create a memorial site for the old sub-camp at  Augsburg-Haunstetten.

In the Augsburg district of Kriegshaber consisted 1944/45 a concentration camp for women. The camp was set up in the main building of the former Michel works and was on the second floor of the northern tract. Today at number 160 Ulmer Strasse is the Augsburg Gewerbehof (Trade Park) housed. The camp was probably built in August 1944 and was first mentioned on the 7th September 1944 and It existed until 25 April 1945.
In the camp about 500 Hungarian Jewesses were housed. The women came via Auschwitz to Augsburg. About 300 of the women were working in the Michel works, which emerged from a medium commercial radio  company which previously produced electrical components. During the war they manufactured mainly connectors and relays for aircrafts. Workplaces of concentration camp prisoners were mainly at the factory number 2 at the Ulmer Strasse. Some of the women were working temporarily in the number 1 of the Michel works at the Rehmstrasse, today it is the Gewerbwehof on Siebentischwald. Some women are said to have worked in the industry works Lohwald close to Neusäss in the production of camouflage paints.
Approximately 200 female prisoners were forced to work in the basement of the Firm Knappich (shortened called Kuka). The Kuka plant in the Ulmer Strasse 74 was about one kilometre away from the camp. This machine factory was founded in 1898, and had manufactured Arc-Welders before 1939 as well as municipal vehicles. During the war it produced armament components.

A female industrial worker amidst heavy steel semi-products (KINEX BEARINGS, Bytča, Slovakia, c. 1995–2000)
Flora Klein, then a prisoner in Kriegshaber, recalls: "We were 500 women prisoners in this building, all from Hungary and the Hungarian language areas, Transylvania, Carpathian-Russia and Slovakia The housing complex was located on the outskirts of the city and we were divided into two shifts, guarded and led by Wehrmacht soldiers to the factory basement, which was  about half an hour's walk until we reached the factory where we worked on the production line of steel presses for different components. Wehrmacht soldiers guarded us and several times there came an SS-Helferin as well SS officers. The Wehrmacht soldiers and SS-Helferinnen lived in the same Living Complex as us inmates, only in a different part."
Although the building which housed the former Sub-Camp, and still exists today, no evidence of the camp is available there. However, at  the location of the satellite camp Augsburg-Haunstetten on the opposite side of the city,
the sub-camp Kriegshaber has been mentioned. 
German Source: Häftlingsberichte im Erinnerungsakt der Zentralen Stelle Ludwigsburg, in: BArch Ludwigsburg, ZStL.IV 410 AR 147/75.(Detainee reports in Memory-Act of the Central Office in Ludwigsburg, in: BArch Ludwigsburg, ZStL.IV 410 AR 147/75.)

The KZ Sub-Camp Pfersee was set up around April 27th 1944 in a large stretching  vehicle maintenance hall of the former Luftwaffe News-broadcast barracks stationed at Augsburg. This camp replaced the one destroyed on April 13th 1944 by bombing of Camp Haunstettenm which had been part of the Messerschmitt AG. The still existing hall had ten major gates. In the area behind each gate a prisoner block was housed.
The Inmates of this Sub-Camp ranged from 1.500 to 2.000 men. However, with the closeness of the front-line approaching prisoners arrived from evacuated camps into the west of southern Germany and affected Augsburg. This resulted that towards the end of the war, the number of prisoners grew in the camp. The majority were mainly categorized as political prisoners. But there were also 'work-shy', 'police security detainees, 'Jehovah Witnesses' Gypsies', 'homosexuals', Jewish prisoners and at least one cleric in the camp. The majority of prisoners did not come from the German Reich, but from almost all occupied countries of Europe.
Incapacitated prisoners were mostly transferred back to the main camp Dachau and replaced by workable ons. Jewish prisoners were exchanged by the SS from sub-camps  around Kaufering. The Pfersee camp was in close contact with the other camps of Messerschmitt AG in Leonberg, Kottern, Lauingen and Fischen. The camps in Burgau, Hogau and Bäumenheim, were also producing for the Messerscchmitt AG,  under the Administration of the Augsburg camp leader. He decided on all overarching problems that occurred as well as conducting bookkeeping  and accounting of all camps associated with building fighter planes for Messerschmitt.
Messershmitt Me 410 Hornisse Fighter Bomber

The prisoners worked almost exclusively for the Messerschmitt AG, few of them were seconded to do special tasks, they were used, for example, by the city of Augsburg and the Reichsbahn operating office for the removal of rubble and re-construction after an Allied bombing raid, others were doing services inside the Lager.
The vast majority of the prisoners worked in twelve-hour rotating shifts at the about six kilometres distant plants of Messerschmitt AG in Augsburg, or in Haunstetten. There were mainly the air-crafts of the types Me 410 and Me 210  built, also parts for other types of aircraft, including the jet Me 262. In the factories, the prisoners were doing a variety of work on the machines, for example the work transportation, material storage and construction activities and clearing. In early 1945 a greater number of prisoners from Pfersee worked towards the establishment of outsourcing work for wing Production for Messerschmitt in the woods near the railway station of Horgau.

Messerschmitt Me-262 Schwalbe (Swallow) 

The men slept in bunk beds, almost the entire space was occupied by prisoner blocks up to a small area for inmate functionaries. In the western block of the camp there was an infirmary. In the eastern block, camp elders, the camp clerk and other function prisoners were domiciled. In this area the punishments was carried out. Here the prisoners were beaten on the 'block', in addition the gallows were also erected at this location. As a roll call square, the outside of the hall served for this purpose. It was fenced off with barbed wire. The camp gate was located at the eastern end site of the camp area. The SS guard resided next to the camp gate. 
Factory shelters may be used during the frequent bombings only in exceptional cases. During bomb alerts in the camp, the prisoners simply marched to a nearby gravel pit.
Civilian workers and residents of Augsburg rendered sporadic help, this was by no means the rule. Aid packages from the International Red Cross reached some prisoners only towards the end of the war.
In camp Pfersee at least 81 men died. In all probability this figure, however, was higher, since until the autumn of 1944 the sick and deceased prisoners were transported back to Dachau. Most prisoners died in February and March 1945, when the camp was rampant by a typhus epidemic. In addition, there were dead due to exhaustion and disease, Apart from that, there were the victims shot at random by the SS for various offences.  Camp Pfersee reported executions by hangings for escape attempts, alleged sabotage, looting or theft and disobedience. In addition, some prisoners died as a result of ill-treatment by the temporary guards. There is no evidence that these deaths had been recorded or included in the above figure of eighty-one.
Among the team's ranks of guards, some were transferred into the SS assumed as disabled Wehrmacht soldiers unfit for front line combat. The known commanders of the camp were SS-Untersturmführer Horst Volkmar and the last camp leader SS-Oberscharführer Jakob Bosch.
On the 25 April 1945, the Sub-Camp Pfersee was cleared. A small number of sick and disabled men was transported by the SS back to Dachau, the remaining prisoners, approximately 1,600 men marched under SS guard in the southern direction. After several days the concentration camp inmates reached the village of Klimmach. There they were liberated by American troops. In Klimmach two men died from the rigours of imprisonment.
During the march one other prisoner died who the guards buried at Bergheim near Augsburg. (Ref.:Cemetery records of Augsburg Cemetery Office)
During the Dachau process 1947 indictment against individual members of the SS was raised, who were stationed in the Augsburg camp. The investigations of the Central Office of the Landesjutizverwaltungen Ludwigsburg in the 1970s led to no prosecutions.

Pfersee Gate in the 80s. A small gatehouse was to follow later

The rooms of the sub-camp were used by the US Armed Forces as part of the 'Sheriden barracks' up in the 1990s as workshops. There are no indications of the former camp. The building is unused since the departure of the Americans. As part of the conversion plans of the city of Augsburg there is a local Community Initiative striving to get the hall back and set up a memorial.
Author German Text: Wolfgang Kucera

Bad Ischl (resettlement camp)
In Bad Ischl, Upper Austria, there were two external camps of Dachau - the Umsiiedlerlager (Resettlement Camp) Bad Ischl February 1942 until December 19, 1942 and the sawmill Bachmanning from June 18, 1942 until December 19, 1942. 
The resettlement camp was in Bad Ischl district of Roith, on the road to Ebensee, built for 'ethnic Germans' (Volksdeutsche) to settle in the Upper Danube area. Principal and owner of the camp was the 'Volksdeitsche Mittelstelle, Einsatzverwaltung Oberdonau in Linz' (Ethnic German Centre Administrative Point Upper Danube Linz').
The prisoners were used for the construction and internal requirements of the barracks of the resettlement camp. They were housed in a pre-built barrack. According to the International Tracing Service, the working commando had an average workforce of about 60 inmates. In a first transport about 40 prisoners were brought from Dachau to Bad Ischl on 9 February 1942,  of these, 37 were of German and three of Polish nationality, almost all were held in protective custody. The Team Leader was the 36-year-old Kapo Ludwig Geibig from Saarbrücken who survived the imprisonment in the Dachau concentration camp. During the existence of the resettlement camp until December 19, 1942 no prisoner died, but there were deaths immediately after their return.
With a second transport on the 17th June 1942 to Bad Ischl came further 24 prisoners for the completion of the interior of the barracks. The transport lists one prisoner as a plumber, one as an electrician  and the remaining 22  as labourers. Nationality wise it differed from the previous arrivals, no longer were the  German in the majority. The composition were now made up of ten Poles, nine Germans and five Czechs. 
 In the following weeks between the 19th June and the 26th August 1942 a small number of repatriations from two to four prisoners were reported to the main camp at Dachau, so that at the end of August 1942, only 45 remained from the total of about 60 prisoners who comprised the command centre in June 1942 and remained there until December 1942. The investigations of the Central Office of Justice Management in Ludwigsburg 1972/73 showed only very little information about Bad Ischl. Apparently, it did not come in Bad Ischl to any homicide or serious arbitrary acts by the SS. The transit camp was used after the war as a refugee camp. In June 1946, this proportion of the Estate was leased by the Austrian National Social Services to the Austrian Glass Company, as a permanent establishment.

A little more than four months after the opening of the Bad Ischl-Resettlement camp, the Sägewwerk (Sawmill) Bachmanning was selected on the 18th of June 1942 as an additional  point of use for Dachau inmates in Bad Ischl. Since 1941 the sawmill served as a supplier for the German furniture factory AG in Butschowitz near Brno (Brünn), which was privately owned in May of that year by the managing director of Deutsche Ausrüstungswerke (DAW), At the plant there were initially 15 to 25 civilians employed. They were supplemented on July 28th 1942, by 20 prisoners from the Dachau concentration camp, who worked mainly as Hozfäller (Tree-Fellers). The age of the inmates ranged from 20 to 42 years. As Kapo of this Team was the 40-year-old Richard Fischer a native of Heilbronn who was held under 'Protective Custody'. 
Apart from him, there were three more Germans. The other nationalities were made up of thirteen Poles, two Czechs  and one Yugoslav.  In the course of autumn 1942, individual prisoner were recalled and sent back to their main camp at Dachau, whose places were apparently not refilled. After the withdrawal of all Dachau prisoners on December 19th 1942, other inmates from the satellite camp  Grossraming, near Mauthausen arrived  to continue the work.
Author German Text: Albert Knoll

 Bad Ischl-Ausria

The 'sub-camp' Obersdorf part of the community of Bad Hindelang in the Allgäu existed from the 20th March 1945 to April 1945 and consisted of one prisoner only, who was allocated and worked for the wife of Rudolf Hess (Heß), Ilse Hess. Ilse Hess, who lived in a house in Bad Obersdorf after the flight of her husband to England and his subsequent detention there, ran a small farm on the outskirts of the village. She probably requested help through the Labor Exchange (Arbeitsamt) In March 1945, and was sent the Dachau concentration camp prisoner Friedrich (Fred) Georg Frey. Frey, born in 1902 in Röt near Baiersbronn, was a Jehovah Witness  and imprisoned because of his faith since 1937. After his original police custody he was detained  from September 1937 to September 1939 in Dachau, and then transferred on February 18th 1940 to Mauthausen. Subsequently, he was registered until 1945 until liberation at Dachau. 

 Bad Hindelang
The tasks Frey had to perform among other things like gardening and the care and milking of ewes (sheep) and the Iceland ponies. With these he did an Express-Delivery on behalf of Bad Hindelang into the Hintersteiner valley for Frau Hess, who had been approached by the local authorities to perform this service.
According to his (Freys)  own statement she had defied the order that Frey should not be allowed to be added to the family.  Instead Frey had slept in the house, attended the general evening meals and  dinners and not wearing prison clothes. [One can only guess that he was expected to live in the stable with the animals, which Frau Hess would not have,sic]
Frey, who testified about his stay in Dachau, that he was mistreated harshly and had suffered permanent health damage, he did not report about his treatment in the house of Frau Hess.
The so-called 'forced labor' by Frey in the household of Use Hess ended 20 April 1945. Frey self-reported after the Second World War, he had gone home from from Bad Hindelang in May 1945 on his own.
 The legal investigation about the 'sub-camp' at Bad Oberdorf ceased in 1973, while the fate of Friedrich Frey is not known. Use Hess later went to Bremen, where she died 1995. The house in Hindelang, at the time of writing, is now owned by her daughter-in-law.
German text by: Christian Wussow

Since April 1934 existed in Bad Töz a SS Junker School: which by military and ideological training should prepare candidates for high-ranking service in SS Support Units and the Totenkopfverbände. (Death-head Divisions)
In the summer of 1940 the first prisoners from Dachau were brought to Bad Tölz. The SS locked the prisoners in five basement rooms of the garrison building in the Junker-School:  Thus a  new Satellite Camp was established at Bad Tölz. In the following two years the number of the basement detainees remained nearly stable. Most prisoners came from Poland, many from Germany, but also some Czechs, French, Italians and Hungarians were among them. As of October 1944, the Belgians Albert Guerisse who later on became President of the International Committee of the Dachau-Prisoner Liberation Front was with them.. Few of the prisoners were Jews.

Cadets taking part in a classroom exercise in 1942/43

Detainees at Bad Toelz were forced by order of the Central Construction Office of the Waffen-SS to work on building projects. Among other things, they carried out renovations, put in walk ways and built horse stables as well as air raid shelters.. Later, a group of 40 to 50 prisoners had to clear a wooded area about eight kilometres away from the SS Junker school and create on the site a firing range.  An independent work detail was temporarily employed in the township of  Gmund. In the last months of the war there were additional  30 prisoners of the Dachau concentration camp taken to Bad Tölz. The SS transported this group every morning before the Morning Roll-Call (Appel) of prisoners by truck to Dürnhausen / municipality of Habach. In the over 20 kilometre remote location these prisoners were taken there daily, including weekends, to work on the construction of a Barrack Camp, and late at night, they were taken back to the garrison.
In addition to the building projects of the Central Construction Office of the Waffen-SS, single prisoner-commandos were also directly used by the SS Junker school in other activities, they were [gezwungen] 'forced' in doing (freight) transport work, they had to dig and plant in the nursery, an Angora breeding colony had to be looked after, and  the swimming pool within the SS-Garrison had to be maintained. Furthermore, they were used in making hay. There was an Auto Repair Shop attached to the School, were experienced prisoners worked as mechanics.
At least since 1942,  the City Council (Lebensmittelverwaltung) Bad Tölz used prison labour, repeatedly a member of the city police was seen escorting a group of up to eight concentration camp prisoners to various places where they had to unload and load potatoes and coal form, and into railway wagons. There is only sparse  information, as to the circumstances of individual working details what their different assignments were. The SS did seek in particular under the German prisoners rather professionals and qualified tradesmen for use to their requirements.- like masons, builders, carpenters and electricians, while most Polish prisoners were used on strenuous auxiliary works. The professional work was led and directed by civilian overseers mit Meisterprüfung (with masters degrees.)
. Overall, the prisoners describe the relationship situation and the behaviour of the SS guards-compared to its brutal conditions in many other Knzentrationslagern-as less cruel. But irrespective of that there were in Bad Tölz  heavy work details to complete. In particular, the establishment of the Schiessplatz (Rifle Range) firstly because of the long foot marches going there, the hard physical work and the brutality of the then stationed commanding SS leader at this place, which was always associated  with great anguish.
Most KZ_Überlebenden (survivors) declared that they did not know nor ever witnessed any murder of their fellow prisoners in this sub-camp, as was often the case in other places of detention.. However, individual prisoners died in Bad Tölz. On 10 June 1944, Florian Gloinski from Poland was killed, allegedly because he fell from a scaffolding during construction on a building site. On 21 April 1943, the German prisoner  Hans Schaudig .hanged himself.

The guarding of the Bad Tölz prisoners was carried out by members of the Dachau camp SS.The leader of the guards reported directly to the Dachau concentration camp commanders and not the head of the SS Junker school.. Notably is only is Ludwig Frisch, the first known  of  the Tölzer  Kommandantenfüherer. The former prisoners, remarked  about  him as an comparatively mild SS leader.. But at night in an intoxicated  state he is supposed to have repeatedly visited the basement accommodation and threatened  prisoners with this side weapon. [He probably waved his pistol around, sic]

The SS appointed in the summer of 1940 the two-time German concentration camp prisoner Christian Rank to Kapo and Wilhem Wimmwer his deputy. On 1 September 1942 Rank was blamed for thefts from the store room  of the of the sub-camp  and returned together with Wimmer and two other prisoners back to  Dachau.. The following month, the SS deported all four prisoners to Auschwitz. Ranks successor in the camp was Franz Vinzenz from Munich,and remained in this position until the liberation of Bad Tölz.

At least in three cases prisoners succeeded to escape from the camp, but they were usually apprehended  shortly afterwards: The SS brought them initially back to Dachau and deported them little later to another tougher concentration camp. Several prisoners remember that one of their inmates who was apparently detained and categorized  as a 'Gypsies,(Zigeuner), escaped while on the construction work of the SS-Shooting Rang. During the investigation of the incident the Dachau SS officer Franz Johann Hoffmann interrogated  a friend of the escapee and beat him conscience on the basis that he was involved and part of an alleged complicity.

The main gate SS-Junkerschule (Cadet-School) Bad Tölz 1942
A few days before the arrival of the US Army, the SS still took 7,000 prisoners from the Dachau main camp, on a death march in the direction to the south. Shortly before Nay 1st these prisoners arrived at Bad Tölz, the inmates of the Cadet School were forced to leave their cellar accommodation and join the train. In the evening, the concentration camp inmates were brought near he village of Wolfsöd into a wooded ravine, fear of a mass execution went through the ranks of  prisoners. But apparently the presence of a Wehrmacht's General preventing the SS guards from committing  a bloodbath. On the command of this high ranking  military commander all the remaining prisoners were returned to the Junkerschule. In the following days, US-Army troops liberated the remaining survivors and gave them medical care where needed at the Cadet  School Garrison. 

The US Army continued to  use the buildings of the former Junker School under the name of 'Flint Barracks' until 1991. Since 2001, development companies of the city and the District Council of Bad Tölz are working on the complete redesign and redevelopment of this historic site.   
Author of German text:  Dirk Riedel  

History - Beginnings: Even in the early Bronze Age, the plain between the Donau and Lech was inhabited, as evidenced by the discovery of a skeleton grave near Hamlar. During Roman times, the Via Claudia Augusta leading through the present municipality.

In the summer of 1944 the Messerschmitt AG erected in the  buildings of the Agriculture Factory Dechentreiter in Bäumenheim a satellite camp for armament facilities and an outsourcing operation for prisoners originally from the Dachau concentration camp. The managing operation were located near the railway station of the municipality Asbach-Bämenheim on the track line from Augsburg to Donauwörth. This sub-camp was first mentioned on 1 August. The approximate 500 prisoners came mostly from the the camp located at Pfersee (near Augsburg) to Bäumenheim.

The prisoners stayed in a three-story brick building on the premises of the Dechentreiter Firm, immediately adjacent to the workshops. At the top two floors were the dormitories of inmates, on the ground floor the kitchen and a magazine was installed. The building had been surrounded by barbed wire. In the next adjacent building the SS guards were housed. This group consisted of about 50 men, plus former Wehrmacht soldiers that had been drafted into the SS for guard duties.. Camp leader was a Oberscharführer Rossbach. The camp Bäumenheim was administratively subordinated to the central sub-camp located at Augsburg-Pfersee.

 Picture from Asbach-Bäumenheim, Bavaria, German, as it is today

The prisoners worked for the Messerschmitt Parts Operation in two twelve-hour shifts and produced components for the jet fighter Me-262. Apparently there were no deaths from abuse or punishments for criminal activities by prisoners in this camp. However it happened, and the main reason, that members of the guard or administration would drive the workforce with blows to achieve higher production performance  or if idleness was evident.

On the 19th March 1944, the town Bäumenheim was bombed by Allied aircraft, the aim was the Messerschmitt-Works. apart from numerous local civilians, and three SS guards, about 70 inmates were killed. Moreover, among the inmates that had gone into fragment protection trenches, the casualties among the inmates was rather high and unexpected.. Some of the wounded were taken to the hospital about five Kilometre away to Donauwörth. The majority, about 50, had been taken into the infirmary of the external camp of  Pfersee. The dead were first buried in the cemetery at Bäumenheim. After the war, most were exhumed and  moved to the Dachau Leitenberg elementary. A memorial stone recalls the bombing of the victims, which includes the concentration camp prisoners.

After the attack, the 300 remaining prisoners were used to dis mantel  the facilities that remained. In early April 1945 they were transported by train to Landsberg am Lech and then marched to their main camp at Dachau, where they were liberated by American Armed Forces.. During the Dachau processes the IBT Bäumenheim was sporadically mentioned, but it was not until 1969,that  the Central Office of the Landesjutizverwaltung in Ludwigsburg took up the investigations, but was ceased shortly afterwards. On the grounds of the former camp, the company Agro have now built up their assets.

Author German text: Wolfgang Kucera

According to the Federal Law Gazette indicates there are no documents regarding a Dachau satellite camp at Bichl in the district oF Bad Tölz (Bavaria)..The municipality Bichli in 1941 decided to employ 100 prisoners of war in the expansion of  railway property by the Regensburger Firma Riepel., and further 700 Jewish women with their children from the Litzmannstadt  ghetto (Lodz) which were deported to Bichl   as forced labours who the Germans had rounded up. From May to December 1941 they were housed n the flax factory of the municipality. Large parts of the former flax mill no longer exist today, in a smaller area of the site a carpentry  is now set up.


Author German text:Dirk Riedel



Blaichach was first mentioned in 1275 as Bilaicha. The counts of Montfort -Rothenfels built in 1494, a toll bridge over the Iller river, bringing the important salt road from Oberjoch to Lindau which led directly to Blaichach. Blaichach was part of königsegg-rothenfels , and  was reversed in 1804 to Austriat at the Peace of Pressburg (1805) and later fell to Bavaria. In the course of administrative reform in Bavaria  the municipality edict of 1818, they established the community who's descendants live there now

As with other numerous sub-camps of KZ Dachau in the Allgäu the history of camp Blaichach starts in the second half of 1944. The camp was first mentioned in mid July 194 and finally on 25 April 1945. However, at the end of June 1944, the first detainees were transferred to Blaichach. By June 1944, 227 prisoners arrived at Blaichach, in July 194,  281, in August 127 prisoners were the camp. Thedatenees came mainly from the Soviet Union,the  Netherlands, France and from the German Reich, among them were Germans who had fought for Red Spain (Rot-Spanien-Kämpfer). Not all transfers were done from the Dachau Main Camp but from the central detention centre in Munich-Allach (BMW). A former inmate said the average total number of about 7,000 prisoners was maintained at Blaichach which was gradually reduced by the 26 April 1945,to 416 prisoners.By the end of the war they were evacuated on foot to Oberjoch were the guards fled at night, and the prisoners returned on their ownto Blaichach. Thus they were able to welcome the Allied soldiers as free people

.The prisoners worked for the company BMW in the production vonZahn wheels and connecting rods for aircraft engines. An impression of the size of Ptroduktiosstätte gives the number of 345 machine tools, which had been housed in a factory building of AQllgäuer weaving spinning Blaichach, simultaneously during the production of tables was continued in neighboring rooms. The prisoners of the outdoor camp were quartered in the factory building of the Allgäu weaving spinning in two floors, the whole building was surrounded with watchtowers and barbed wire. The prisoners were set depending on floor belonging to the day or night shift. Lagerführer of Blaichach was derived from the Saarland Oberscharführer Theodor Stutz-Zenner, who had been Serving since May 1941 in the Dachau concentration camp. Guarding the camp was for the SS that vielfachaUS wurd no longer front-grade Wehrmacht soldiers recruited. At the workplaces of plant security company BMW was responsible.

 Blaichach from the East
  The prisoners are believed to be those, who had previously worked in Allach for BMW. Former prisoners claim that they had been abused with slaps (Ohrfeigen) or blows there, yet serious injury, death blows or murder did not occur in Blaichach, Living conditions in the camp were marked by general lack of comfort, it was simply basic. From the traditional linen requirements mainly under garments, it can be concluded that the clothing was poor. While there appears to have been a change of clothes, which was sent back every ten to 14 days to Dachau for washing of dirty and soiled clothing, this meant in fact that prisoners had two sets of garments at their disposal., Also prisoners received for their personal hygiene soap and shaving soap. but instead of socks, prisoners often wore foot-wraps. The footwear were wooden clogs or shoes (upper leather) with wooden soles, in some cases, numerous pairs of 'prisoner's leather shoes' is mentioned as footwear. Because the clothing from Dachau was insufficient, the prisoners had to take care of their own requirements. As to eating utensils and woollen blankets, the BMW works were responsible.

The camp doctor of the Dachau concentration camp, during his inspection at Blaichach,  praised in the 'airy rooms' of the SS team. The inmate quarters he found 'light, airy and spacious' and the food 'nutritious'. The medicine supply for the detainee hospital, provided by the BMW company he judged to be satisfactory. Nevertheless, there had been between the 8th September and 19 November 1944 a total of 35 sick prisoners  returned to the main camp (Stammlager). As prisoner replacement they were were transferred from Dachau to Blaichach, this was usually standard procedure. Through work assignments some prisoners managed to make contact with the civilian population. An Austrians functionary inmate testified to the helpfulness of the Blaichach people and other inhabitants of the area.

On the 2nd September 1944, the camp reported that five prisoners as have been lost by escaping. Whether the escape of four Russian civil  inmates and one POW  actually succeeded, or whether they were apprehended  again, is unknown. Seven weeks later, eight prisoners were transferred back to Dachau from Blaichach with the remark 'Fluchtversuch' (Attempted to escape)  Existing records indicate that during the existence of the camp one Dutch, and two Russian prisoners died,  whose deaths were registered at the town hall. After the war, three more Russians died. At the cemetery at Blaichach five former prisoners are buried, the inscription on the grave stones in indicates their origin from the camp.

The former Camp Commandant Stutz-Zenner was was placed before an American military court proceedings,accused  of crimes against detainees in Dachau Flossenbürg, Allach and Blaichach.. He, it was claimed  to have been involved in selections and subsequent sending of prisoners to extermination camps. It was alleged he witnessed the executions of two Soviet prisoners he had reported to the Administration in Dachau for looting, and were hanged. A French inmate was  battered  so severely that he died  from  of the injuries. He also should have assaulted particular French and Soviet prisoners because his brothers had been killed in action in hoe countries. Stutz-Zenner was sentenced on 22 August 1947 to life in prison, but released from the War Criminal Prison Landsberg on 23 May 1955. The date of his death is unknown.
The German Public Prosecutor perused the case  against Stutz-Zenner, yet unsuccessful and  was closed in June 1962, but another method was directed against 'Unbekant' (Unknown)' .For this  investigation mainly local people, members of the local council and former members of the Gendarme in Blaichach were interviewed as witnesses. They all reported never have heard of abuse or violent crimes inside the camp. Nothing!. [All relevant documents and  paperwork regarding this investigation no longer exists and have been destroyed, [Ref.:Kempten 2z Js 43/62. Die Akte ist nicht auffindbar und vermutlich vernichtet. Auszüge  aus dem Verfaren  sind erhalten, BArch Ludwigsburg:  ZStL IV 410 AR 1996/66]

Author German text: Edith Raim

The establishment of the sub-camp Burgau relates closely with the late efforts (prior to war's end) of the Third Reich, to develop a defence industry, in the mittelschwäbishen (Centre Swabian)Town of Bergau, in the county of Günzberg, were they built in the spring of 1944 in the at the so-called wood angles near the Mindel river, first ten, later another four barracks, as part of the personnel management of the aircraft manufacturer Messerschmitt, were the company would operate and manufacture component parts for fighter planes.. This was only part of the final assembly of the streamlined designed aircraft fighter, Messerschmitt 'ME 262'.  A few kilometres south-east of the Scheppacher Forest, the 'Kuno-Works' were originated. Even before the establishment of the establishment of a sub-camp, the Kuno-Works were already operational. At first ' 'foreign workers' from the occupied countries were here, above all, used .[Frmdarbeiter (foreign workers)were initially not part of the concentration camp administration, si.]

Burgau is a town in the district of Günzburg in Swabia, Bavaria. Burgau lies on the river Mindel, and has a population of just under 10,000. 
By February 1945, the personnel administration barracks were vacated by the Messerschmitt AG. 120 male prisoners from Dachau arrived, a sort of advance party whose task was to prepare 6,000 square- meter of terrain for its new function, a proper type of sub-camp. On the night of the 3rd and 4th March, the first transport of 500 prisoners, Jewesses, arrived, nationals of Poland and Hungary, aged between 17 to 45 years of age, at Burgau. The very next day, a second transport also 500 female prisoners from the same countries of origin disembarked. The first transport that arrived was from Bergen-Belsen, the second from the women concentration camp of Ravensbrück. During the more than the two weeks of rail travel many detainees had died. The survivors were half starved and bitterly cold in freezing temperature., unable to work, for which they had been brought here. The consequences of transportation influenced significantly the living conditions of women in Burgau, even after six weeks of stay in the camp, it was hardly a sufficient way for them to recover.
After arriving in Burgau the female prisoners were given numbers - following the example of the Dachau system. Accustomed to Ravensbrück's conditions, they were pleasantly pleased to note that only 92  prisoners were kept in any one room, so that they had to share a bed only with one friend. The Hungarian prisoner Eva Danos describes the daily rations: In the morning four decilitre 'coffee substitute, at noon seven decilitre hot water with the labeled 'soup', evening four decilitre 'coffee and 120 grams of bread.

Hunger and malnutrition marked not only the living conditions during the transports, but also dominated the camp life. This also shows on the list of the dead od the camp. These show in addition to 13 women and five men, where malnutrition is indicated in two cases as the cause of death. Four female died on the day of arrival or a few days later. All 18 dead were from Hungary. The dead were civilly registered by the Municipality of Burgau. Since this was the issuing of death certificates, a doctor had to be called in. A camp doctor was not available, so it fell back on an established Burgauer doctor. Dr. Karl Schäffer, a brother of the late Minister of Finance Schäffer. It was expected of him that he issued the death certificates, without having seen the dead. However, he insisted on an inquest, which was finally granted him access to the camp. But Dr. Schäffer took care not only of the dead but visited twice a day the camp to assist the sick and the suffering. The dead were placed on a truck of the Kuno-Works to the nearby Jewish cemetery in Ichenhausen and buried there. [Ichenhausen has a large Jewish Cemetery, with a total of 7000 to 8000 gravestones, and 1100 that are transcribed sic.]
The real purpose of the satellite camp, was, for prisoners to work in the defence industry, but due to it's short existence of the camp it played only a minor role. 120 men and 120 women were selected to work for the Kuno-works, they were taken by trucks and buses to the factory, some days, especially. when air strikes threatened, they had to walk several kilometres on foot. Some of the other women were used for work within the camp or in earth works for the municipality of Burgau Those remaining prisoners who were sick upon arrival the first few weeks and now recovered were probably the majority, there was no work at all. It is interesting to note that prisoners employed by the Kuno-Works received twice the amount of bread ration than others. 
Testimonies show that some German women from the area who were also engaged together at the Kuno-Works went to local farmers to collect food which they they shared out under the prisoners.
Camp commander at this time  was Sergeant (Oberscharführer) Johann Kresse. He changed his name after the war to Kulik., Under this name he gave evidence the Dachau processes. A former prisoner reported about him, that he had threatened with his pistol durin a roll-call, to shoot anyone, whom he might find 'electriccal wiring used as shoe laces.' (meaning the thin cables used in aircrafts).  Actual crimes during his Burgauer time were not known Dr. Karl Schäffer reported that Kresse had followed his advice to improve medical care and nutrition of the prisoners after much hesitation. Kresse was sentenced on 3rd March 1947 by an American military court to five years in prison, less the pre-trial detention, for the 'humane behaviour' of  Kresses. It is more likely his anticipation and knowledge of a lost cause with the feared penalties by the Allies to have played a decisive role of his behaver throughout.
On 24 April, the camp was evacuated because of the approaching US troops and the prisoners transported by train towards Kaufering. The train, however, went onlyas far as Untertürkheim, from where some of the prisoners walked towards München-Allach on foot. On this death march at least 60 people lost their lives .

Author German Text: Zdenek Zofka.

Der Ort des Terrors, Vol.:2-page 283
Verlag C.H.BeckMünchen 2005
Translated from German by:
Herbert Stolpmann von Waldeck
 Continued under D