Sunday, October 16, 2016




 Alphabetical Order

          G -
The sub-camp Germering was on the western edge of the road Nunich-Landsberg, close to the train station. The location was a few kilometers away from the Dornier-Factories  Neuaubing and the Maintenance-Plant Neuaubing to the east, the Dornier airfield in the west and the Fuel Supply Depot, with the Economy-Research Company in the south. Initial plans for the establishment [of a camp,sic] originated in March 1942. About one and a half years later, on 7 September 1943 the Germering Council gave approval to the  Dornier works Neuaubing to build a new 'retinue camp'(Gefolgschaftlager) at the top of the Bahnhofstrasse. Principal builders were the Dornier Werke GmbH Munich and the architectural plans provided by the Dornier Factory GmbH itself.  Construction management came from Neuaubing. After discussion for an upcoming expansion plan on  15 March 1942, the camp should be expanded to a total of 22 buildings, five buildings for Wash-rooms/Toilets and an Administration  Building. This indicated a planned occupancy of the camp with about 600 prisoners.    
 Location of Germering

About the beginning of construction there are different statements: Once January 1944 is mentioned, elsewhere the 9th May 1944. On an aerial photograph of the Allies from July 8, 1944 six accommodation barracks for prisoners and three Team barracks and a cross buildings are visible. On an aerial photograph from the 5th September 1944 two more accommodation barracks are almost done. There weretwelve buildings still in existence in 1946. The beginning of the construction project can be stated as early November 1944, as this corresponds with the final state of further expansion.
Transport lists from the sub-camp Germering and vice versa to Dachau for the period of 9 May 1944 until 29 September 1944 indicates 245 names. According to the Prison Camp Directory of the International Tracing Service which shows an average camp capacity of 50 prisoners. Anyon Jez from Ljubjana, who was involved in establishing the camp, recalls, however, that there were 125 men working daily on this project. According to Jez the buildings had been completed in late July 1944, the area was then in September only levelled. The local population remembers that barbed wire fences and watchtowers were present during construction. Guard personnel were exclusively members of the SS. Along the accommodation barracks concrete zigzag trenches were created, one of which still existstoday.

Probably at the end of September 1944 - - apparently after its completion of the camp, it was never used as a workplace for prisoners. Whether a production facility was planned at a later stage, is unknown,probably what was intend, was to use the prisoners at some stage to work at the the Dornier Factory, the airfield or the  the fuel storage area. We will never know!. 
After the war, the barracks were used by refugee's from Eastern Germany (expel lees) and homeless. Later, they were mostly used by local businesses as as storage or production sites. One barrack is still inhabit today. Although the site was termed as a sub-camp of Dachau, it was never used as such.
Author German Text: Franz Strownal
The sub-camp Gmund at the Tegernsee existed from the 23rd of May 1944 to the 28th of April 1945. Initially there were about 20 prisoners who built a bomb shelter o0n the grounds of 'House Lindenfycht',a private house of the Reichsführer SS Heinrich Himmler. The number of Reichs-German prisoners was high for a Baukommando. They accounted for about half of the work unit. The rest of the prisonerswere from the Soviet Union, Poland, Italy and Yugoslavia. They had been taken into custody in the years 1943/ 44 and interned at Dachau.They were mostly construction workers and professional Maurer (masonries).

                                                               Gmund -Tegernsee - Germany

Apparently the SS took the prisoners daily from Bad Tölz and transported them to the site. The head of the Bad Tölzer Camp, Hauptsturmführer Ludwig Fritsch, also acted in Gmund as detachment commander. The construction work took pl;ace in the park of the Villa and was under constant observation of MRS. Himmler who complained to the camp administration at Dachau of the feigned low work performance of the prisoners.. Therefore, the inmates worked under constant pressure. One prisoner died during construction. After completion of the assigned part  the of the bunker the work unit returned on the 2md September 1944. to the Stammlager.

Memorial to commemorate the death march of the concentration camp prisoners of Dachau in 1945, Achmuehle, Bad Toelz - Stock Image
Memorial to commemorate the death march of the concentration camp prisoners of Dachau in 1945, 

Achmuehle, Bad Toelz WolfratshOn 19 September, the SS put together a new commando, which consisted mainly of prisoners from foreign countries The average work team was made up of 15 prisoners, as Himmler had ordered  to gig  a Luftschutschutzstollen (Air Raid Tunnel) which should ran from his  private home to that  of General Walter Warlimont who lived on Ackersberg in Herzogweg 6, towards Finsterwald. The prisoners suffered from the exhaustive excavation works in the damp tunnel that were in part already under water.As some areas of the  site was no longer accessible, the SS reduced the work detail at first to twelve and later to five prisoners. It was a daily task by the SS to transport the prisoner from Bad Tölz by truck to their work places and later used the Reichsbahn..Although they listed Schwerarbeiter(Heavy Manual Labourers), they received their meals only before the start of working (Arneitsbeginn) and in the evening at the  the camp in Bad Tölz. Every now and then they were given a soup by the construction company or the supervising manager. . Even Obersturmführer Hammerl, who headed the Reich Security Service Detachment in Gmund, felt, that the proportionate labour and material expenses for such undertaking was inadequate, especially as the tunnels could not be used by the Bevölkerungg(local population). Plans for the construction of another public air-raid shelters in the town Gmund has not been realized.
Author German Text: Gabriele Hammermann


Himmler's wife Margarete and daughter Gudrun left Gmund as Allied troops advanced into the area. They were arrested by American troops in Bolzano, Italy, and held in various internment camps in Italy, France, and Germany. They were brought to Nuremberg to testify at the trials and were released in November 1946. Gudrun emerged from the experience embittered by her alleged mistreatment and has remained devoted 
 Margaret Heimmler (left) with daughter Gudrun in Allied internment during the Nuremberg Trials in Nuremberg, 24 November 1945.

Himmler,s other family with his secretary Hedwig Potthast
Himmler and Potthast confessed their love for each other at Christmastime in 1938. at first they tried to keep it platonic, but they fell into an adulterous relationship. Himmler's wife since 1928 and mother of their daughter, Margarete Himmler, found out about Himmler's relationship with Potthast at some time in February 1941. She felt humiliated and bitter, and Potthast's parents rejected the extramarital relationship. Potthast first took up residence in Grünewald and from 1943 she lived in Brückentin, near the estate of Oswald Pohl, because she was a friend of his wife, Eleonore. Lina Heydrich, wife of Himmler's right-hand man Reinhard Heydrich, and Gerda Bormann, spouse of Martin Bormann, were also counted among her friends. Later she lived in Berchtesgaden, Bavaria.

Potthast had two children with Himmler. Helge, a son born 15 February 1942 in the Hohenlychen Sanatorium, and Nanette-Dorothea, a daughter born 20 July 1944 in Berchtesgaden. That same year, Himmler borrowed 80,000 Reichmark from the Nazi Party Chancellery and had a house built for Potthast near Berchtesgaden.

Little is known about the overall relationship between Himmler and Potthast. The couple most likely saw each other only rarely due to Himmler's activity in his numerous offices. Presumably, neither Potthast nor Himmler's wife were informed of his "secret work". Potthast's relationship with Himmler ended during the spring of 1945,—they met for the last time in mid-March 1945, after which they shared daily telephone calls up until 19 April 1945.

When World War II in Europe ended, Potthast was in Achensee, Austria and, after learning of the death of Himmler on the radio on 23 May 1945, went into hiding, living temporarily with Eleonore Pohl in Rosenheim, Upper Bavaria.In June/July 1945, she was arrested there by members of the U.S. Army and interrogated for several days in Munich. Margarete and Himmler's daughter, Gudrun Burwitz, did not learn of her half-siblings until after the war. When she tried to make contact with them, Potthast refused.She lived in Theissendorf and kept in contact with the family of Himmler's older brother, Gebhard, as well as Himmler's former close confidant, Karl Wolff, until the 1950s.
Final years

Potthast later remarried and took on her new husband's name. Her son struggled with ailments throughout his life and stayed with her; her daughter became a physician. In a 1987 interview with former Der Spiegel editor Peter-Ferdinand Koch, Potthast remained silent about Himmler's responsibility for Nazi war crimes. She died in 1997, aged 85, in Baden-Baden.

As far back as 1933, there was a Dachau sub-camp about four Kilometre distance at Gröbenried. The local newspaper of "Dachau Amperbote," on September 7, 1933 reported that 150 prisoners from the KZ-Dachau were at Moos near Eschenhof cutting peat. The KZ-Management bought  the peat for use in the concentration camp from the landowner Dinkler. The prisoners were also accommodated on theavailable property at Dinklerhof. It is unknown how long the prisoners were used in the Dachauer Moss and how many guards accompanied them.ciation Dachau Moor with the camp management of K-Dachau in August 1933, the only other source for this sub-camp. The interests Association asked on 17 August 1933 that the prisoners can be used by Dinklerhof after their work on the road in Eschenried.Accordingly, the sub-camp consisted Dinklerhof at this time. However, to a deployment of prisoners in Eschenried it did not, because the former camp commandant Theodor Eicke on 22 August 1933, therequest by pointing refused, the detainees were exclusively for the needs of K in use, and the road in Eschenried lie within the jurisdiction of the volunteers Reich labour service (Reichsarbeitsdienst).

Image result for picture  Airport of Dachau-Gröbenried - Germany
  Airport of Dachau-Gröbenried - Germany
In the register of the municipality Gröbenried there is no Estate  Owner or tenant named Dinkier in 1933, nor was the name found  in the land registry files as previously reported. Yet older EschenriederBîrger (Inhabitants) remember exactly contrary to what is questioned, the Dinklerhof in the neighbouring village Gröbenried. They point out  to the Hauptstrasse wjich today is  Münchnerstrasse 9. At this address, is currently a restaurant operating with a beer garden.
To gain further information of this former sub-camp of KZ-Dachau, there  have never been any standard investigation by the Prosecution or the Central Justice Department at Ludwigsburg

Author German text: Sabine Schalm


It was through Heinrich Himmler that Oswald Pohl, Head of the SS WVHA, heard about  his future wife, Elenore von  Brüning. The widow of one of the sons of the co-founder of  Hoechst, a sister company of IG Farben, who  lived with her family on the large estate of  Brüningsau near Halfling, in the district of Rosenheim. Apparently on the orders of Himmler, who supported the family Elenore von Bruning, as it shows that Pohl had the villa renovated before his marriage in 1942. To do this,  the SS selected in November the first ten German KZ-prisoners to be stationed at Halfing. There were two exceptions, for allprisoners had  to be craftsmen, including carpenters, masons, fitters and painters. However, two of them came from Poland, one from Czechoslovakia, the rest were German prisoners. They had to carry outall necessary repair and renovation work, then they were transported by the SS on the 24th November 1942 back to Dachau

After their marriage Pohl moved with his wife and children to the Estate of Comthurey in the immediate vicinity of Ravensbrück but Brüningsau remained in family ownership. Apparently a children's home had been set up at least in one part of the property. To do the work there, mostly prisoners of the  Jehovah Witnesses Sect and almost exclusively craftsmen, which were the latest the SS brought   back to Brümimggsau in the autumn of 1944. Even the communist Friedrich Pöpl was among these prisoners. He was a bricklayer by trade, and  relates to the different tasks they had to perform, he tells  of the numerous repair work, mainly maintenance  work had as a priority done on  the property again, among other things, he and others should construct a water bore (Brunnen) fountain. One to two SS men from Dachau took over guarding the prisoners and detained them overnight in a room lined with straw inside the house. Pöpl also remembers the children's home, which had by then vacatedagain. On November 12, 1944, the SS brought the prisoners back to Dachau, most of them were a month later transported into the KZ-Buchenwald. However, Frtiedrich Pöpl came a second time, on 8 April in 1945 with three Polish, one Russian and two Germans, transported back to Brüningsau. Yet their assignment was stopped prematurely, due to the advancing US troops, the SS took the seven prisoners by bus to  the sup-camp Stephanskirchen.. Together with other detainees they then should continue to march on foot in a southerly direction, but at Nussdorf all prisoners were freed by by the US Army.

A few weeks before the war ended, the family Pohl returned to the Halfinger property. His wife worked at the villa with four male prisoners and one female as servants. Again, these were Jehovah's witnesses,presumably from the KZ-Ravensbruck. Even Pohl, the Head of the SS WVHA kept himself there in the first days of May 1945 on his estate before he disguised as a farm hand went into hiding in the village of

After the end of World War II in 1945, Pohl first hid at his Estate in Bavaria, then near Bremen. Disguised as a farmhand, he was captured by British troops in May 1946 and sentenced to death on 3 November 1947 by an American military tribunal.Oswald Pohl was the chief defendant for the proceedings at the fourth Nuremberg trial; he and his co-conspirators were on trial for crimes committed in the concentration camps administered by the SS-WVHA while he was in charge. Without denying his knowledge of the mass killings of Jews, Pohl presented himself as a mere executive, accusing the prosecution of being guided by feelings of hatred and revenge.

Pohl appealed his death sentence several times. During the Nuremberg trials, he started to see a Roman Catholic priest and recommitted himself to the Catholic faith. Officially, Pohl had never left the Catholic Church, although he stopped attending services in 1935. In 1950, his re-conversion resulted in the appearance of his book Credo. Mein Weg zu Gott ("Credo. My way to God"), which was published with permission of the Catholic Church. Pohl was hanged shortly after midnight on 7 June 1951 at Landsberg am Lech. 

The Estate Brüningsau is still owned by the Famlie von Brüning. After the liberation in 1945, it served as temporary accommodation for Sudeten-German refugees , but soon a children's home was re-established in the villa and from 1968 to 1998  existed a social institution for needy mothers with children. A memorial stone does not exist

Post by Helge » 17 Aug 2010, 10:52
Born in 1904 to Richard Holtz and Hedwig Müller, Eleonore’s father died shortly after her birth. After some schooling in housekeeping and stenography, she arrived in Berlin at the age of 17 and eventually got a secretarial position at the Walter de Gruyter publishing house, where she later worked as a graphic designer. Shortly after starting her formal education at the Hamburg school of arts and crafts, she met her first husband Karl Mass (fifteen years her senior); in 1933, she married her second husband Rüther von Brüning (twenty-eight years her senior). After the birth of her second child, von Brüning died. A love affair with Ludwig Gniss led to yet another pregnancy, but after the break-up, Eleonore decided to give birth to her third child, Heilwig, in a home of the Lebensborn, a SS-organization for “Aryan” mothers of “pure blood.” She also joined the NSDAP (the National Socialist German Workers’ Party) in 1937, where she eventually met Oswald Pohl (see Schmitz-Köster, 2007; for the Lebensborn, see Lilienthal, 2003).
Eleanor in 1968 committed suicide

Author German Text: Dirk Riedel

Born in 1904 to Richard Holtz and Hedwig Müller, Eleonore’s father died shortly after her birth. After some schooling in housekeeping and stenography, she arrived in Berlin at the age of 17 and eventually got a secretarial position at the Walter de Gruyter publishing house, where she later worked as a graphic designer. Shortly after starting her formal education at the Hamburg school of arts and crafts, she met her first husband Karl Mass (fifteen years her senior); in 1933, she married her second husband Rüther von Brüning (twenty-eight years her senior). After the birth of her second child, von Brüning died. A love affair with Ludwig Gniss led to yet another pregnancy, but after the break-up, Eleonore decided to give birth to her third child, Heilwig, [Lebensborn Child 364] in a home of the Lebensborn, a SS-organization for “Aryan” mothers of “pure blood.” She also joined the NSDAP (the National Socialist German Workers’ Party) in 1937, where she eventually met Oswald Pohl (see Schmitz-Köster, 2007; for the Lebensborn,  and see Lilienthal, 2003). Eleanor in 1968 committed suicide.
German Gebirgsjäger during a climbing exercise

Hallein, within the Salzburg-Austrian country, 15 kilometres south of the provincial capital Salzburg itself, was a Mountain Infantry-Batallion stationed (Gebirgsjäger) with an occupancy from 1.500 to 2.000men. During the war, a Training Replacement battalion of wounded soldiers was established. The project management was the Central Department of the Waffen SS, Arbeitskomando for the Mountaineer -Training Replacement Battalion of the SS-WVHA Office Group C (construction). According to the earliest recorded transfer lists in 1943, 30 male detainees were transferred to Hallein on the 1st September1943. Witnesses report that it already began in June 1943 with the transfers from Dachau. The sub-camp was expanded to hold approximately 90 people in the coming  months.
The prisoners were quartered in wooden huts, about three kilometre outside of Hallein, on the nearby country road after the village of rhe Adnet quarry. The quarry was located on a 1,000 square meter site,the brothers Heinrich and Andreas Deisl had leased it from the Austrian Federal Forestry. At that time, six wooden barracks were built for Italian workers. The SS expropriated the secluded grounds for their own purposes.

Image result for Russian village
Russian village
The prisoner Josef Plieseis described the accommodation huts surrounded on all sides by rocks (Felsen) and particularly secured by dense barbed wire fences. As open space, there were about two metersbetween a barrack wall and fence posts.
The work assignments for the prisoners was near and within the vicinity of Hallein. They were used as craftsmen and labourers by the SS, to build a shooting range and a close combat fighting terrain, designed and built an original Russian village with a total of ten buildings, including even a small Orthodox Church, as well as conducted minor repairs in the city HHallein and  the surrounding villages. Heavier work was dome in the quarry and in its vicinity. The guarding was firstly done by the SS, on the other hand civilians like foreman could only maintain order. A complete screening of prisoners was not feasible, the prisoners could always contact the  local population, so that there was in Hallein an inaugurated circle that contributed to the assistance of escape attempts and liberation of some prisoners.
Plieseis described the work to be performed as not particularly difficult, the conditions under which it had to be done, however, as inhuman. The harassment included the Work carried out on the run (im Laufschritt). Older residents of Hallein can remember the past, as the SS hurried emaciated prisoners through the streetsJohan Myrda, who was transferred in May 1944 to Hallein, reported how theprisoners were exposed to the whims of brutal Kapos while on his work details and were beaten for smaller occasions, often groundless bloody with a broom handles or with their fists.
 food situation was bad, because the SS reduced the food rations to their own advantage. Bread allowances and the meat and fat components of the soups were denied to the prisoners. Hallein was one of the sub-camps, from which replacement of inmates, which no longer were able to work, due to the bad working and living conditions, were exchanged for new ones from Dachau. In the course of an enlargement of the camp a second wooden hut was occupied.

                                         Hallein vom Barmstoa2.jpg

                                                           Hallein City

In the course of 1944, the situation in Hallein for prisoners seems to have improved. the relative independent and critically authored quarter report of the SS camp physician between March 1945 describesHallein mostly positive. 'The barracks were pleasantly airy and well heated'. Washing and drinking water were abundant '., And the toilets are clean enough and properly maintained' so that no infectious diseases were rampant and the prisoners are  'lice-free'. Criticism expressed by the physician was about the food rations and on the clothing, especially the supply of underwear. By contrast, the prisoners were equipped with good, suitable footwear.Plieseis described the arbitrary murders which were committed against prisoners in Hallein. An incident in which inmates were shot successively, while fetching water on a remote pasture by an SS Rottenführer on the grounds that they would try to escape, thg incident was observed up close by fellow inmates as outright murder. Because of the feared return to the main camp Dachau, Plieseis fled on 20 August 1944 during an unguarded moment from a work detail on a secluded Alm. He could remain hidden in his nearby home-town by his friends. Plieseis was up to the war's end, the 'key figure in the establishment and management of a resistance group in the mountains of the Salzkammergut, which steadily increased until the end of 1944 to about 500 people'. In autumn 1944 two other detainees Alfred Hammerl and Leo Jana succeeded, with the support of resistance groups of the population and relatives to escape from Hallein ['Alm', is: a high altitude mountain meadow with simple stables,HKS]
Salzkammergut - Austria

                                                 Center of Hallstatt

                                                                         Salzkammergut - Germany

The sub-camp remained until the end of the war because the SS needed staff for auxiliary work in their garrison. The number of inmates was reduced by April 1945, down to  55.  In the recent weeks, the prisoners were free of any labour input, and some took the opportunity to escape. The SS was restricted to guard duties only. Since executions towards camp inmates was feared towards the end of of the war, resistance circles, especially that of the the Halleiner citizen Agnes Primocic, who had kept secret contacts since the existence of the camp with some prisoners in order to eventually save them, came into the open.. They could a few days before the arrival of US-Troops on the 5th May 1945 leave the camp unmolested by the SS.. Due to the unfavourable attitude  of the city's mayor, they could not beaccommodated within the township, they were taken into an abandoned re-settlement barracks nearby. [This was probably a precaution of the Bürgerneister to avoid a possible epidemic or other unpleasant activities,sic.]Reaction to the widely acclaimed ceremony for Agnes Primocic in assisting fleeing prisoners was denied in summer 2001 by the local FPÖ alderman Gerhard Ciken that there has never been a "KZ" in existence in Hallein. This claim sparked a fierce debate in Austria,.
There is no indication in the city as to the sub-camp.

Author German Text: Albert Knoll

Der Ort des Terrors, Vol.:2-page:336-
Verlag C.H.BeckMünchen 2005
Translated from German by:
Herbert Stolpmann von Waldeck

                                                                                        CONTINUED UNDER PART 6

No comments:

Post a Comment

Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.