MUNICH - SENDLING. ARCHITECT BÜCKLERS
In 1941 the Munich architect Karl Bücklers received from the Reichsluftfahrtministerium (Reich Airways Ministry) a project to plan and supervise the construction of three Armaments factories, namely: Linhof, Widmeier and Grunow at Munich -Sendling. The facilities were built next to each other east of the railway line Munich-Tergernsee. According to Mr. Bückllers, the construction measures undertaken were initially without problems. It was only during the initial period of the third factory building for the company Grunow that the construction on on this site came to a halt due to a lack of labor. For this reason, the Reichsluftfahrtministerium provided a working detachment of 40 detainees from KZ-Dachau. The first prisoners, mainly craftsmen, came to Munich-Sendling on the 16th March 1942. Within this sub-camp, which was later established, were detainees under Schutzhaft (Protective Custody) mainly Polish, Austrian and German prisoners. In the meantime, they had to erect an accommodation barrack on the open field of the construction site. In this wooden barrack, one part was cut off for the guards and the camp commander. The prisoners slept on two-tier wooden bedsteads. Around the rectangular camp area was a barbed-wire fence and two watchtowers erected.
Sendling - Aerial view of the Market Hall area (view to the east
With this commando, the prisoner Franz Winzenz had come to Munich-Sendling as Kapo. He was replaced by Hermann Pfeifer on 31 July 1943. The guard team consisted of eleven German SS members and a camp commander, neither were known by name. The commander even slapped (ohrfeigte) the detainees on the smallest offenses like smoking while working or for alledged low labor performance. He also punished them with Sunday work or food deprivation. In the case of serious offenses, the prisoners were brought back to the Stammlager (Main Camp) Dachau, as in the case of a Bavarian prisoner who had attempted to make secret contact with his family. A survivor who reported that a Pole had been hanged because of sabotage. (Ref .: (Statement Georg P. 28 I. 1975, in Prosecutor's Office Munich I 420u Js 20I656 / 76.)Prisoners were led by SS members to the building site about 100 meters away. In addition to KZ- prisoners, there were prisoners of war from France and Russia, who were, however, guarded by members of the Wehrmacht, and also worked there. Any contact among these prisoners was strictly forbidden.
The food consisted of the usually watery soup, which was prepared in a nearby restaurant kitchen.
At least two detainees were trying to flee from the sub-camp. A German prisoner was apprehended again after two months, returned to the sub-camp and then transferred to the Bunker-arrest in Dachau. His remaining whereabouts is unknown. On the other hand, a prisoner from Czechoslovakia succeeded in escaping.
During his interrogation, Karl Bueckler, the architect, stated that he had never entered the camp himself, and that he had only held contact with the prisoners on the construction site. According to a former prisoner, Karl Bücklers is said to have treated the prisoners well.
On 1 December 1942, the sub-camp Sendling was disbanded, and the prisoners returned to the main camp in Dachau.
The company buildings are still preserved and are located now to the west of today's Koppstrasse. The companies Widmeier and Linhof are still to be found at this address, while Grunow was taken over at Koppelstrasse 6 by the Siemens conglomerate.
The prosecutor's office, Munich I, determined the proceedings in the sub-camp Sendling in the years 1973 to 1976, then the investigations were stopped.
Author German Text: Sabine Schalm
The sub-camp Neuburg consisted of a working camp at the Fliegerhorst (Small Aerodrome) Neuburg / Donau. The Neuburger Fliegerhorst had been completed in October 1936, it had become initially a pilot training school, thus since 1942 trainees came from different Units and various Fighter-Pilot companies. In the years 1942 and 1943 the Fliegerhorst was expanded and in October 1944 an Endmontagestäte (final assembly site) for the jet aircraft Me 262 of the company Messerschmidt was set up in a nearby forest. Since February 1845 the airfield experienced several heavy bombings.
According to the IT'S directory, the Neuburg sub-camp is documented in the KZ-files for the period from 1 February 1945 to March 1945. One to two prisoners were supposed to have been involved. Name and transport lists are not known. In a "proof of claim" of the main camp of Dachau for work assignments to the Fliegerhorst Headquarters, which is available for the period February 1945, only a few working days from prisoners are shown. From this, and from verbal statements, it can be concluded that the sub-camp Neuburg did not exist for more than several days, a maximum of a few weeks perhaps, and consisted of only a few inmates. These were presumably placed in the prison of war camp, which had been annexed to the Luftwaffe nearby, and were housed and fed there.
|Neuburg Fliegerhorst as it is now|
The posting of a Dachau work commando to Neuburg was probably the result of air raids on the airfield. The presumption that the detainees were being used after the bombing is trivial in view of the small number of prisoners. It is assumed that the prisoners were used to remove un-exploded bombs and time-delayed incendiary devices , as was the case at the nearby city of Ingolstadt, which had been heavily bombed since the end of January 1945. About the closure of the Neuburg sub-camp there are no written sources. An oral statement indicated that the airfield was closed as such due to constant heavy bombardment. The KZ-prisoners would then have had the opportunity to escape and hide until the end of the war in nearby Neuburg, in cellars of destroyed dwellings. On April 26, 1945, American soldiers entered the city.
Investigations by the Central Office of the Landesjustizverwaltung in Ludwigsburg at the beginning of the nineteen-seventies led to no further investigation and was stopped. On the airfield today the Jagdgeschwader 74 is stationed.
Autjor German Text: Max Direktor
MUNICH - SCHWANTHALERHÖHE ,BERGMANNSSCHULE
In the School for Miners at Munich-Schwanthalerhöhe ten prisoners from the KZ-Dachau were accommodated in a classroom between December 1944 and April 1945. The prisoners would be trained as craftsmen who came to the help after bomb attacks in Munich to secure buildings or to carry out repairs.
A former prisoner remembers that he was with two to three Poles, four Czechs. two Yugoslavs, and three Germans in the working commando at the Bergmannstrasse. At nights they were locked up in a classroom and guarded by an SS-member. The leading commander was brutal in handling and dealing with prisoners, he beat them, and kicked them in their backsides (Fusstritte). He did not make use of his pistol, however. There was no guard team who accompanied the prisoners to or from their work assignments.
In June 1944 the miners' school was almost completely destroyed by a fire bomb. In December 1944, when the prisoners from Dachau moved into the Bergmannstrasse, there were no more students prent. In the school building there was a soup kitchen and a shower. Whether these facilities were also available to the detainee commando, was never clarified.
On the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the Bergmannschule in 1991, a small volume on the school history was published, the photos of the building before and after the destruction are included. The use of some space as a sub-camp for prisoners from the KZ-Dachau remained unedited in this publicarion.
In 1973, the Central Office of the Landesjustizverwaltungen in Ludwigsburg inquired about the sub-camp Bergmannschule. The procedure was discontinued in 1976, since any killing operations were not detectable.
Author Gernan Text: Sabine Schalm
Continued under part 21
Der Ort des Terrors, Pages 452-Vol 2 C.H.Beck, München 2005
Translated from German by:Design: email@example.com
Stolpmann, Herbert Karl Walter
Stolpmann, Herbert Karl Walter