Monday, February 27, 2017

DACHAU-KZ - SATELLITE CAMPS - PART 16 Alphabetical Order M DACHAU-KZ - SATELLITE CAMPS - PART 16 Dachau KZ Satellite Camps Alphabetical Order M Part 16





As early as 1936, the Reich Ministry of Aviation demanded that the BMW Group of companies set up a second plant for the  assembly and repair of aircraft engines in addition to the production facilities in Munich-Mosach, the reason being, to decentralize the aircraft engine production in the event of a war. The 'Schattenwerk'(Shadow Factory) for BMW should be erected from 1936 to 1939 in Munich-Allach, and here the large-series production of the 80I engine should commence. The factory was located in the Dachauer Strasse. The construction project, however, was delayed several times, so that the production in Allach only began in May 1942. Monthly, 100 BMW engines should be produced here. In March 1943 the Munich factory facilities were badly damaged during an air attack and the production of the 80I engine was completely moved to Allach. In 1944, the Allach factory achieved a maximum production rate of 2,000 engines per month, an enormous output quota.



                                  BMW 801D on display at he War Museum Duxford - UK

   In 1939/1940, the workforce in Allach consisted of about 1,000 employees. At the end of 1941, the first civilian forced laborers were deployed. In the following years, the Bayrische Motorenwerke (BMW) became the most important private employer in Munich with the highest number of civilian forced laborers. By the end of the war, the total workforce in Munich rose to over 17,000. The highest proportion of these were foreign forced laborers, KZ-prisoners and prisoners of war. All around the Allach Factory, barrack tyoe towns (Barackenstädte) had been created for thousands of workers. Also in other places were Dachauer KZ-prisoners at different workplaces engaged for BMW. These inmates came from far flung places including the sub-camps of Blaichach, Kaufbeuren, Stephanskirchen and Trostberg, as well as a working commando in the Süddeutsche Rohrmattenfabrik (Bamboo-Mat-Factory) in Dachau's Rosswachenstrasse, where a part of BMW production from Allach was outsourced 
‘Foreign workers at BMW in Allach’
c. 1943
All the foreigners in aircraft engine production had to be visibly identifiable as such. The Soviet prisoners of war had the “SU” symbol on their jackets. Concentration camp inmates could be recognized by their striped uniforms. These photographs were most likely propaganda photos. Munich-Allach, ca. 1943. Source: BMW Group Archiv.


  In order to protect the plant Allach from allied air raids, the Reichsluftfartministerium (Reich's-Air-Ministeriun) approved on 7 September 1943 the construction of a bunker in Allach. Under the construction supervision of the organization Todt began the shift of the underground production of the Allacher manufacture and thus the employment of KZ-prisoners at the bunker construction site.

The first prisoners were already deployed in Allach in 1942, and they returned to the Stammlager Dachau in the evening. In March 1943, the prisoners had to erect the sub-camp in the immediate vicinity of the plant. In part, these prisoners were accommodated in existing horse stables. The campground which comprised of a total of 30 buildings was surrounded by an electrically charged fence and watchtowers. There was a utility-building with kitchen and laundry facilities, an administration building, accommodation barracks and an assembly ground. In addition, SS accommodation and a camp chancery were built. In the next two years, one of the largest sub-camp complexes of the KZ-Dachau was built, which apart from the sub-camp Allach BMW,  the camps Karlsfeld OT and Rotschweigen were subordinated to Dachau.

The sub-camp BMW Allach was a pure men's camp. It was initially planned for 3,000 to 4,000 prisoners. In July 1944 several barracks were separated and the sub-camp Karlsfeld OT was set up for Jewish prisoners. On 29 November 1944 there were 4,743 prisoners in Allach. However, the demand for labor at BMW rose further, and the occupancy up to February 1945 had increased to about 10,000 prisoners. On 26 April 1945 8,970 prisoners were still registered, including Russians, French, Poles, Yugoslavs, Italians and Germans. At the same time, the sub-camp complex Allach changed in April 1945 to a transit camp for evacuated detainees from other Dachauer sub-camps such as Burgau and Türkheim or from the more northern concentration camps, which could not take up the then overcrowded Stammlager Dachau. At times up to 22,000 prisoners were in the sub-camp Allach BMW.


Inmates waving a home-made American flag greet U.S. Seventh Army troops upon their arrival at the Allach concentration camp on April 30, 1945. Photo credit: National Archives, courtesy of USHMM Photo Archives

The first KZ-prisoners were mainly trained with the view to be proficient in the construction of the sub-camp and the skills required in the factory as metal cutters, turners and locksmiths. About half of the detainees worked in the factory, the rest were working on the construction sites for the plant and from September 1943 on the bunker projects. One of the heavy assignments was named after the executing construction company 'Commando Dylerhoff'. Here, the prisoners were driven to work by beatings, because [in some cases,sic] they fell into the mortar containers which was thereby  spilled [probably deliberately,sic]. There was also the fact that the breaking of a masonry drill on the construction site was punished as a sabotage with the threat of the death penalty. For the production, the prisoners worked in two 11.5 hours shifts and were supervised by civilian masters (Meister, a person with a degree in his field of expertise). Many of the civilians were humanly inclined towards the prisoners; others did not hesitate to make reports when they produced too many reject parts or virtual scrap material, this resulted, that the prisoners were subjected to severe penalties for such offenses at the workplace and later on in the camp.
[There were several "executions" due to sabotage, escape attempts or theft of food. The Central Office of the Landesjustizverwaltungen lists 50 murders.sic]

The arrival and the living conditions In the camp Allach-BMW the former prisoner Karl A. Gross described: 'We marched through the gates  9'hats off!') What we saw in front of us was a desolate impression To see the huts, which, on closer inspection, turned out to be horse stables, without windows, but with gaps like openings underneath the roof, this was shuddering to us, Dachau was a concentration camp, a clean city against this collection of stables' .(This part of the sub-camp had initially 22 wooden barracks, which had been converted from former horse stables. On average, 3,500 to 5,000 prisoners were in the camp. The barracks were not equipped with locks, the prisoners were sleeping on straw bags as mattresses in three-tier  beds. I lived in one of these barracks after the war, while employed by the US Army and can not criticize the living condition nor the hygienic facilities of this camp. HKS,sic.) 

The deputy kitchen Kapo Erich Kunter described the situation in the prisoner's kitchen in 1947. A large part of the food had already been taken by members of the SS. The food conditions in the sub-camp Allach deteriorated above all towards the end of the war.                                                                                        
                      Last existing buildings of th camp Allach, Granatstraße 8 and 10.

Camp commander of the sub-camp cpmlexes Allach and at the same time camp leader of the camp Allach-BMW was SS Obersturmführer Josef Jarolin, his deputy SS-Hauptscharführer Sebastian Eberl. A surviving prisoner estimated the overall strength of the SS men in Allach to be on an average of 800. Among them were SS men from Hungary, Romania and Croatia. Above all, camp leader Jarolin was in the camp the most feared because of his cruelty. In Allach, for example, there were beatings as punishment, severe arrest periods and during wintry conditions, in which the prisoners were poured over with water. More than 40 prisoners were hanged. The Crematoria-Capo of the KZ-Dachau Emil Nahl reminded us that during the Christmas season of 1943 he was commissioned to prepare six Russian prisoners at Allach to hang. In the summer of 1943 further prisoners were hanged in Allach; they had been picked up in an escape attempt. In other cases alleged sabotage was the reason for an execution by the rope.

View YouTube: Landsberg's hangings, a total of 288 were hanged by American Occupation Forces, sic.

A number of Functionary Prisoners from camp Allach-BMW are well-known by name, such as the assistant clerk at Stefan Lason, the Revier Kapo (Hospital) Michael Rauch. Kapo of the clothing supp;y room and later block leader of B 3 Gustav Adolf Carl. The Red Spain fighter , Ferdinand Westerbarkey, who had been a warehouse clerk and the German Karl Wagner who was since April 1943 Camp Elder. When Wagner refused to beat a Soviet prisoner on the orders of the commandant Jarolins in July, he was dismissed and transferred after five days to the bunker at the  arrest facilities in Dachau. Incarcerated  for six weeks in the bunker, he was released after the customary beatings were carried out. The French doctor, Henri Laffitte, was especially popular among the prisoners.
Information as to the total number of deaths from the sub-camp Allach-BMW are still very inaccurate to this day. This resulted not least from the fact that the dead were transferred to Dachau and included in the death statistics there. This makes the numbers for the sub-camp distorted and much too low. In 1947/48, corpses were exhumed on the site of the former camp.

On 26 April 1945, 9,000 prisoners left the Stammlager Dachau. The evacuation prisoners marched also through the sub-camp Allach. On the same day all German and Russian prisoners from Allach were put on the same march. They followed the route along the Würm River via Pasing and Gauting to Leutstetten. On the 27th of April, they came upon a marching column from the KZ-Dachau. Until the liberation in Waakirchen on 1 May 1945, the prisoners marched through Starnberg, Wollfahrthausen and towards Bad Tölz.
 In  camp Allach, there were still about 10,000 prisoners left, who were liberated by American troops on the 30th of April 1945.
After the liberation, survivors founded the Comité de Liberatiuon d'Francais d 'Allach, which essentially published publications about this camp.


According to former prisoners, Jarolin had often struck prisoners in the administration building of the Dachau concentration camp to unconsciousness. According to the prisoners, he was also present on July 1, 1942, when twelve prisoners were punished while tied to stakes. Jarolin had ordered the hanging of the prisoners as their shoes touched the ground(Which in fact is a strangulation method of hanging,sic) In a handwritten affidavit, which had arisen before the beginning of the process, Jarolin stated that between May and December 1941 150 prisoners had been imprisoned and beaten with an ox-whip. Between July and September he had been involved in the execution of about 700 Soviet prisoners of war; He had given commands to the execution commando and shot prisoners in 30 to 40 cases. In April 1942, Jarolin was reportedly involved in the selection of prisoners, at which the concentration camp doctor Sigmund Rascher conducted human experiments in Dachau. After that, he had also been present at Rascher's experiments. Jarolin also stated that he had been present in Dachau from December 1942, and also after his transfered to Allach, oversaw there the execution of the beating and the hanging.

 Jarolin was condemned on 13 December 1945 as well as 35 other defendants during the Dachau main process by an American military court because of war crimes sentenced to death by the rope. In the case of jury trials, jailing and kicking of detainees, the killing of three detainees were considered as individual crimes by Jarolin.  The verdict was confirmed by the Commander-in-Chief of the American Armed Forces in Europe on April 5, 1946, who had a corresponding recommendation by a "Review Board" of the army.  Jarolin was hanged on May 28, 1946, in Landsberg's War Crimes Camp.

In 1976, the prosecutor's office in Munich tried his deputy Sebatian Eberl for killing offenses in the Allach-BMW camp. The procedure was discontinued in 1980 due to the poor state of health of Sebastian Eberl.
Emil Mahl, who was involved in Allach's hangs, was condemned to death in the first Dachauer trial. After several court document checks, he was pardoned to ten years of imprisonment.

 After the war, the wooden barracks of the camp Allach-BMW were demolished except for one. In other parts of the camp, refugees and prisoners of war were living. Between 1950 and 1952 the settlement of Ludwigsfeld was built there for Displaced Persons. On 2 May 1997, a memorial plaque dedicated to the victims of the sub-camps Allach and Karlsfeld was erected at the building of the former cafeteria in the Granatstrasse on Initiative of the Cpmite International de Dachau. Together with the MTU Group, the successor company of the Allach plant, and the BMW Group started a few years ago to research the role they played under the rule of National Socialism. Both companies allow historians to access their archives.

Amicale des Anciens de Dachau. Allach Kommando de Dachau, Paris 1982 Christian Taege, Allach-Ein Außenlager ders Konzentrationslagers Dachau, in: Landeshauptstadt München (Hersg.), Verdunkeltes Nünchen. Geschichtswettbewerb1985/86, München 1987, S.98-107
.Zdenek Zofka, Allach-Slaven für BMW. Zur Geschichte eines Außenlagers des KZ Dachau,in: achauer Hefte 2 (1986) S.68-78

Authors German Text: Albert Knoll/Sabine Schalm

                                              München - BMW-Hauptverwaltung.jpg
                                               BMW headquarters in Munich
 luxury automobile maker BMW is celebrating its centennial. The small engine manufacturer rose to a global player with the Nazi era playing a key role in the company's development.
German luxury automobile maker BMW is celebrating its centennial. The small engine manufacturer rose to a global player with the Nazi era playing a key role in the company's development.
BMW - three letters that are instantly recognizable anywhere in the world.The BMW Group is one of the world's most successful automobile manufacturers, a leader among global premium brands. No doubt, the firm founded on March 7, 1916 is a huge success story. For that matter, it's a typical German success story, that is a mix of gloomy chapters and great milestones.
   A lot can be learned about BMW when looking at the annual company books, which - among other accomplishments - list the first commercially successful motorcycle, the BMW R 32, but also mention the fact that beginning in December 1939, prisoners of war, detainees, forced laborers and concentration camp prisoners were put to work making airplane engines at various production sites.Today, BMW no longer keeps under wraps the fact that the firm resorted to forced labor during the Nazi era. "Every tour through our museum and the production site in Munich's Allach district mentions that," says BWM spokesman Stefan Behr. But using forced labor wasn't limited to BMW, he adds: "It was a social phenomenon found all over the entire country." Supplying forced labor
Quite a few German companies in fact used forced labor during the Nazi era, including the country's automobile manufacturers: rival Daimler employed about 40,000 forced laborers, Volkswagen had about 12,000, and at BMW, two out of three of the firm's 56,000 employees were forced laborers and concentration camp prisoners at the time. As the war dragged on, they were "increasingly discriminated against and systematically exploited," according to a 2008 doctoral thesis in the company's archives
   CultureGerman luxury automobile maker BMW is celebrating its centennial. The small engine manufacturer rose to a global player with the Nazi era playing a key role in the company's development.

BMW - three letters that are instantly recognizable anywhere in the world.The BMW Group is one of the world's most successful automobile manufacturers, a leader among global premium brands. No doubt, the firm founded on March 7, 1916 is a huge success story. For that matter, it's a typical German success story, that is a mix of gloomy chapters and great milestones.
   A lot can be learned about BMW when looking at the annual company books, which - among other accomplishments - list the first commercially successful motorcycle, the BMW R 32, but also mention the fact that beginning in December 1939, prisoners of war, detainees, forced laborers and concentration camp prisoners were put to work making airplane engines at various production sites.Today, BMW no longer keeps under wraps the fact that the firm resorted to forced labor during the Nazi era. "Every tour through our museum and the production site in Munich's Allach district mentions that," says BWM spokesman Stefan Behr. But using forced labor wasn't limited to BMW, he adds: "It was a social phenomenon found all over the entire country."

Supplying forced labor

Quite a few German companies in fact used forced labor during the Nazi era, including the country's automobile manufacturers: rival Daimler employed about 40,000 forced laborers, Volkswagen had about 12,000, and at BMW, two out of three of the firm's 56,000 employees were forced laborers and concentration camp prisoners at the time. As the war dragged on, they were "increasingly discriminated against and systematically exploited," according to a 2008 doctoral thesis in the company's archives.Other industries also massively relied on forced labor: Krupp, Bosch, Siemens and the IG Farben chemical industry conglomerate - known today as BASF, Bayer and Hoechst. IG Farben - the firm that produced the Zyklon B cyanide gas that killed millions of Jews at the death camps - [still the German version of concentration camps was: 'Arbeitslager und Vernichtungslager (Working CAmps and Extermination Camps), Forced Labour is a misnomer and were recruited in occopied countries by the German Labor Exchange and voluntary choose to work in Germany sic] actually even ran a factory within the Auschwitz concentration and death camp complex.

 Doing business with the Nazis
Even today, many firms argue that, with their skilled workers sent off to war, they were required to fulfill their production quotas using whatever labor they could find. Businesses were told to resort to using forced labor, Behr says.The Nazi regime banned the production of automobiles and severely limited the production of motorcycles, BMW spokesman Behr says. This is not quite correct: 
The BMW R75 is a World War II-era motorcycle and sidecar combination was produced for the German Armed Foorces,In the 1930s BMW were producing a number of popular and highly effective motorcycles. In 1938 development of the R75 actually started in response to a request from the German Army. sic].
.Instead, BMW was forced to produce great numbers of airplane engines - a branch the company had actually moved away from - while relying on concentration camp prisoners. While this is no justification, Behr says that today, "it's difficult to understand the extent of entrepreneurial liberties back then based on nothing but a few documents." However, he concedes, BMW also made money in the deal.
   German historian Lutz Budrass says that many feel the IG Farben factory at Auschwitz-Monowitz was the absolute low point in industrial developments during WWII. But BMW and airplane manufacturer Heinkel, to name just a few, weren't much better, he explains: "The difference is that their factories were in Germany and not in occupied Poland."Beginning in February 1943, BMW and Heinkel became the first companies to profit from slave labor from the subcamps established alongside larger concentration camps.

Post-war fresh start
After 1945, the allies investigated the role of German industry during the war, but according to Budrass, who is also an expert on the aviation industry during the Nazi era, "that didn't include today's leading German enterprises."
Major captains of industry like Bohlen and Halbach's Alfried Krupp, Friedrich Flick and various IG Farben managers stood accused at the Nuremberg Trials - but comperatively smaller players like Daimler, VW, Lufthansa and BMW and their managers did not. However, there were still some stiff consequences:
"After WWII, production was forbidden; some of our factories were disassembled and machines given away as official war reparations," BMW spokesman Behr says. "BMW still exists today despite this era - not because of it."
But there was also growth in unexpected places. Enterprises like BMW profited from their accumulated technical expertise, historian Budrass argues. US forces in Bavaria found that only BMW had the necessary expertise to service its huge motor pool. Budrass says that therefore another question arises: "How much did developments in the 1950s depend on the Nazi era?" he wonders.
 [None whatsoever, as the Karlsfeld factory producing the R75 motorcycles with sidecars,was given as war price to Jugoslaviasic] 

                              Waffen-SS on the Eastern Front on BMW Notorcycles, Model R75

The plot thickened by 1959, when Herbert Quandt saved BMW from a takeover by rival Daimler and helped it grow further out of the ruins of World War II. But his father Günther Quandt, a well-known German industrialist, had kept close personal and business ties to the Nazi regime. His ex-wife Magda married Nazi Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels while Günther Quandt himself made a fortune arming the German Wehrmacht, manufacturing weapons and batteries while acquiring assets from Jewish company owners.Quandt and BMW may have been separate firms during the war, but in 1959 funds amassed in the Nazi era by his father allowed Herbert Quandt to save BMW.
 [The recovery of German Industrial Enterprises was only possible with the chaange of the monetary system by intruducing the DM (Deutsche Mark) in June 1948 by an American Pfc,by the name of Tannenberg, yes you guessed it, he was a German Jew,
The existung Reichsmark had no value,sic]
Better late than never
Today, the company archives are open to researchers and journalists, which has resulted in two academic dissertations being written about BMW's dealings between 1933 and 1945. Other German brands like Volkswagen, Deutsche Bank, Krupp, Bertelsmann, Bosch, Dr Oetker and the Quandt family have also investigated this dark period in their histories.
   "Many firms have realized that understanding one's past has a positive effect," Budrass says. "It's a sign of honesty," he says. However, it is also a source of great marketing: in publications celebrating its centennial, BMW points to its role as founding member of Remembrance, Responsibility and Future (EVZ), a foundation established for the compensation of former forced laborers. It fails to mention, however, just how involved the company was in using forced labor.
On September 30, 1939, BMW purchased an aircraft engine manufacturer based in the Spandau district of Berlin called Brandenburgische Motorenwerke. Today, the company produces motorcycles for worldwide distribution there. However, there is no mention anywhere that the premises subsequently housed the largest camp for forced and foreign laborers in the region. [Not on the premises, but at Munich -Allach sub-camp as puvlished above,,sic]

Revised March 2nd 2017

Scrapbook Pages Blog
Der Ort des Terrors, Pages 425-430
Vol 2 C.H.Beck, München 2005

Translated from German by:
 Stolpmann,Herbert Karl Walter
 von Waldeck     Continued under Part 17



Saturday, February 18, 2017



                                               DACHAU-KZ - SATELLITE CAMPS - PART 15

                                                                        Alphabetical Order



The International Search Service reported that for the period from 1 January to 14 April 1945 a sub-camp at the Munich Lord Mayor Karl Fehler premises, existed. Two to nine prisoners had been stationed there. Details about this sub-camp or other details, are not not known.
An investigation  procedure of the Central Office of the JusticeAadministration in the years 1973 and 1974 was discontinued, since no witnesses could be found.


The construction of the NSDAP party's chancellery in  the  Gabelsbergerstrasse in Munich began in 1938. The basement had extensive bunker facilities and was completed before the start of the war. The rest of the building remained incomplete until 1945. The offices of the 'Deputy of the 'Führer' Rudolf Hess were accommodated in the 'Braunen Haus' at Briennerstrasse 45 in the Munich party building complex. After Rudolf Hess's flight to England in May 1941, his successor, Martin Bormann, headed the unnamed party management, and moved his Munich office to the "Führerbau" in the Arcisstrasse 12. His employees were distributed in various buildings in the Brennerstrasse, Arcisstrasse and Max-Josefstrasse.

                                                                    Braunes Haus 1935

As early as 1942, Erich M., a prominent prisoner, did serve as a deputy Kapo with twelve to fourteen prisoners for about six months to clean up the Party Chancery in Munich. The prisoners removed bombshells after an air attack. They found wine and liquor in the rubbish and drank the alcohol. After this incident the working commando was dissolved in the summer of 1942. Where these prisoners were lodged remains unclear.    In the spring of 1944, a new commando with 30 to 40 prisoners was taken from Dachau initially by trucks, and later by train,  to the Party Quarters (Parteiviertel) in Munich. The commando consisted of Germans, French, Russians, and Poles.

                                                        Braunes Haus 1945 - Ruins

About a sub-camp at the  NSDAP-Munich-Party-Chancellry can be spoken of, from September 1944, when the prisoners were accommodated in the rear building of the bombed-out hotel Contienental in the Max-Josefstrasse. The guard team was also quartered in this hotel. In the hotel kitchen the food for the prisoners was prepared. In the middle of December 1944, the hotel Continental was badly damaged again  after an air raid and the sub-camp moved into the basement of the property at the Max-Losef-Strasse. Here the offices of the '[Division III - Legal State-Rights-Questions' of the Party Chancellery were housed.
In the mornings various members of the NS-Party gave orders to the working commando for the day. On the section of the Party Administration in the vicinity of the Karolinenplatz, the prisoners were mainly used for clean-up work after bomb attacks and the construction of air-raid shelters, but also for the repair work on private properties of Party members (Partei-Mitglieder). The sub-camp was guarded by ten SS members and the commanding officer SS-Scharführer Uwer.

Former prisoners reported that the conditions were good. They were not mistreated. And no one was killed. This is confirmed by a letter from SS-Hauptscharführer Hans Moser of April 5, 1945, in which he complained about the lax conditions and, above all, about the lack of mandatory duties (Verpflichtung) of the commanding officer, Uwer. Moser had repeatedly been able to establish that the prisoners were working too little, that there was no way in guarding of their accommodation as these were inaccessible, and that the prisoners had library books and road maps which they had found in bombed-out houses.
In his memoirs, former prisoner Hans Schwarz described the fact that the prisoners organized known shortages and exchanged these for information and  messages. In this way, valuable substances (Stoffe) or wines from the KZ-Dachau supply stores were sent to employees at the Party Chancery, who were paid with these goods in return of internal party reports, snd incoming instructions or orders.
On April 4, 1945, the sub-camp was reduced by eleven prisoners. In the Maax-Josef-Strasse, 15 prisoners with seven guards and the commandant remained. In the following weeks, the commando must have been strengthened once more, because when it was dissolved on April 22, 1945, it consisted of 25 prisoners. These were taken by foot from Munich to kZ-Dachau.
On the site of the former party chancery in the Gabelsbergerstrasse, new buildings of the Technical University were built between 1965 and 1970.


)The International Search Service provides the period from January 1945 to April 1945 for the existence of the sub-camp Munich-Reichsbahn. However, an accident report of 22 December 1944 suggests that this sub-camp existed already at the end of 1944, as at the day before two prisoners kept in Protective Custody (Schutzhaft) at the Munich railway station between Donnersberger-Hakenbrücke, had been injured. They had warmed up with a railway policeman on a fire near their workplace, when they were injured by an explosive device. They were French prisoners and  were taken by ambulance brought back to the hospital of Stammlager Dachau.

                                                    Deutsche Reichsbahn Gesellschaft

                                                    Emblem of the Deutsche Reichsbahn-

The commando, which consisted of up to 500 prisoners according to a post-war survey, carried out clearing work for the Reichsbahn. In it's listings are also two Kapos mentioned: Reinfrank and Quad. Only one name is known by the SS staff. Wilhelm Onmacht, a Feldwebel (Sergeant)  of the Wehrmacht, was used as a security guard between 5 March and 25 April 1945. Unfortunately   no sources are available that could clarify one-offs.

Post Script:
The logistics of the Reichsbahn were also an important factor during the Holocaust. Jews were transported like cattle to the concentration and extermination camps by the Deutsche Reichsbahn in trains of covered goods wagons, so-called Holocaust trains. These movements using cattle wagons, for example, from the goods station of the great Frankfurt Market Hall thus played a significant role in the genocide within the extermination machinery of the Holocaust. In 1997, the market erected a memorial plaque in recognition of this dark period of history. Source: Wikipedia.


The departments of the Reichsführer SS Heinrich Himmler and his coworkers in Munich were located since 1935 in the Partyiertel (NSDAP Quarter) in  the Karlstrasse 10 ind were extended to Karlstrasse 8. According to the International Search Service, there was a sub-camp Reichsführer SS for the construction management of the Waffen-SS and the police between 8 November 1943 and 14 April 1945. A strength report to the KZ-Dachau of 23 October 1942, bears witness that seven Prisoners before that date under the designation 'Commando Reichsführer SS Munich' were used. It is still unclear whether these prisoners are already attributable to the sub-camp Reichsfuhrer SS, or whether it is a time-limited commando, which was deployed before the sub-camp was established. Among these prisoners were two German and three Polish prisoners of the group from the police security department. Kapo was the German Alfred Mienik.

Strength reports of April 1945 indicated 13 pr rather 14 prisoners for the external camp. A Serbian prisoner was returned to KZ-Dachau on 6 April 1945 due to illness and a Polish prisoner was requested in exchange on 9 April 1945 from the main camp. Neither for the commando in 1942 for the sub-camp are details as to accommodation, work assignment and SS guard teams known. From 1973 to 1975, the central office of the administration of the judiciary could not ascertain the events at the camp of the Reichsführer SS.
Today, an insurance company is located at Karlstrasse 8 and 10 in a post-war building.


After an air attack on Munich on 7 January 1945 the Reichsführer SS Heinrich Himmler personally ordered the special use of 50 prisoners from the KZ-Dachau for the removal of the damage on the Führer building and administration complex of the NSDAP in the Arcisstrasse. An adjutant of Himmler, SS Hauptscharführer Schitzler, transmitted these orders to the SS barracks at Freimann (in Munich). As to security procedures, a strengthened protective command for the prisoner's use in the Reichs-Administration of the NSDAP should be established and put into place. The guardsmen were to report on 9 January 1945 at ten o'clock in the administration building of the NSDAP in the  Arcisstrasse. Information on the size of this protective command is not known.

At first the prisoners were only meant to be used for one or two days. On January 11, 1945, Dr. Kasper Ruoff thanked the Reichsführer-SS for the use of the prisoners. In a letter on behalf of the Adjutant, he mentioned that without the prisoners the provisional re-construction of the destroyed departments would not have been possible. At the same time, Ruoff asked that the detainees be allowed to work for a further 14 days, not only on clean-up work but for the repair of damaged buildings. On the same day, the extension of the prisoners' resolution until 25 January 1945 was confirmed. That the Prisoner commander was also in the Reich's-Administration was there  over January, is evident in a file note of the principal Owander of 27 March 1945. He points out that against the background of the landing of enemy paratroops in the vicinity of Munich, the KZ-prisoners should be removed from the Reich's-Administration grounds  for security reasons and should be taken back into the KZ-Dachau. Yet in this memo, it was handwritten in the margin that the Reichsschatzmeister (Treasurer) still needed the prisoners. Last mentioned was the sub-camp 'Reichsführer-SS Adjutant', according to the International Search Service on 14 April 1945.
Insights to the prisoners, their accommodation and living conditions as well as that of the SS- Wachmannschaft (Guards) are not available.


The ardent prisoner, Anton S., recalls that on January 31, 1945, he was sent to Munich with nine other prisoners to work on the bombarded Administration Building of the 'Reichsführer SS-Hauptkasse' (Central Paymaster). From Monday's to Saturday's, the prisoners were taken by train from Dacha station to Munich and returned to the KZ-Dachau in the evening. The commando was guarded by  two to three Czech SS members.
In 1973 the International Search Service was able to identify four former prisoners of this commando by name. They came from the German Reich, Poland, Italy and Yugoslavia. On February 7, 1945, the commando was assigned a German Schutzhäftling (Custody Prisoner) who was by profession an Erdarbeiter (Earth Foundation Worker).
Further details on the exact use, the food, the activities, which the prisoners had to carry out, as well as the SS-Guard duties are not known. The commando was closed on 3 March 1945 according to a KZ-file.

MUNICH - REICHSKRIMINALPOLIZEIAMT (Reich-Criminal-Police-Department)

The Reichskriminalpolizeipolizeiamt (RKPA) emerged from the Prussian Landespolizeiamt in 1937 and was integrated into the department 'V' after the founding of the Reichsicherheitshauptamt 1939. A total of 19 criminal police departments were set up, which, under the direction of the RKPA, coordinated the work of several Kripostellen. The sub-camp, called 'Reichskriminalpolizeiamt', is the Criminal Police Office, Munich, which is under the responsibility of the RKPA, at the end of Ettstrasse 2. Between January 1945 and 14 April 1945, a commando of twelve prisoners was deployed there. Apart from these temporal data provided by the International Search Service, no further details on this sub-camp are known. It must remain open whether it was a camp, or if the prisoners were brought daily from Dachau to be employed there.
The District Court was unable to find any former prisoners to be questioned about a
place with temporary accommodation of huts, tents, or other structures.
At the Ettstrasse 2 is now the Munich police department


In the German Reich, KZ-prisoners have been used since 1940 to defuse Blindgänger (dud bombs)  with long-term detonator devices . The prisoners worked in small groups up to six men at changing locations. They were called bomb search or explosive commandos, so today a precise distinction of these individual commandos is difficult. In a letter for the bomb search commander Munich, which was housed in the Stielerschule, the description Bomb-Search-Commando or  Dud-Bomb-Removal-Commando appears.

Disposal of a 4,000 pound blockbuster bomb dropped by the RAF during World War II. Found in the Rhine near Koblenz, 4 December 2011. A linear shaped charge has been placed on top of the casing
The disarmed bomb, positioned on the platform of a truck in Cologne, Germany. German authorities evacuated some 20,000 people from the vicinity while dealing with the old explosive device, which weighed in at 2,200 pounds. Credit Rolf  Vennenbernd/DPA, via Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

The international search service does mentioned on 12 July 1944 about a sub camp 'Munich explosive commando'. This was in regard to an inmate of the so called 'Sprengkommando 12.7.194'. The prisoner of the 'explosive commando 12.7.1944' is known by name. The index file indicates,that  the Viennese Friedrich Zeilinger had died on 8 July 1944 while in this commando. Whether it was an independent command, which was only deployed in Munich on 12 July 1944, or whether it was a smaller commando within a larger group of prisoners who had been deployed for the purpose of the unexploited demolition in Munich remains open to question .In November 1944, there were at least eleven bomb disposal commandos in Munich, which were deployed in groups of six. Again it is unclear whether they belonged to the bomb search command at the  Stielerschule or formed an independent commando remains unanswered.


In the summer of 1935, these so-called SS-team houses were established as a kind of "Studienstiftung-SS'' (Study Foundation SS). At first, suitable houses were acquired near universities and administered by the Race and Settlement Headquarters. Here lived an average of 30 students , who had previously passed through a vigorous and strict evaluation procedure. They had to become SS members,participate in SS military service, and take part in the political world-view education (politische Weltanschauung). Finally, they should be used as an academic SS elite. One of the first 'SS-Team 1935 -Housing' was built in Munich.
On 1 April 1942, the management of the team-house was transferred to the SS-Administration at Maria-Theresienstrasse. On November 5, 1942, seven prisoners from the KZ-Dachau were taken there, who are known by name. Thus a sub-camp consisting of six people, plus a cook was established, who had come for renovation work in the SS men's building. The prisoners came from the German Reich, Poland and Luxenburg, one of them belonged to the faith community of Jehovah's Witnesses. They were all housed in at the Maria-Theresienstrasse
.Commandant of this sub-camp was an SS-Oberscharführer who's name as well as those of the guards is unknown.

During the existence of a two-week period of this sub-camp, two prisoners were brought back to the Stammlager Dachau and replaced by other prisoners. The sub-camp which was also called Painter-Commando, and was dissolved on November 8, 1942, with the return of the seven prisoners.
Today, the property is home to an investment consulting firm.


In a non-localizable SS barracks in Munich were since July or August 1944 ten KZ- prisoners deployed in the construction of an air-raid shelter. In 1973 the International Search Service was able to find three prisoners of this sub-camp. One of them remembers that the prisoners were housed in a room in the fourth level of the barracks. The windows of the room were barred, and the prisoners were guarded by SS-guards from the Dachau. The commander beat one prisoner from Warsaw with a piece of board brutally on his head, that the injured inmate fell to the floor, where the commandant continued to kicked him him until the man died. The corpse of the prisoner was later placed in the barracks yard foe all to view. The unknown commandant once mistreated a prisoner so hard that he had to be transferred to the KZ-hospital in Dachau. He returned to the sub-camp after a good recovery.
In April 1945 the commando of the SS barracks was evacuated, and the prisoners were taken back to Dachau on foot.After preliminary investigations by the the state justice administration Munich II in 1976 a procedure against the unknown commandant murder was instigated.
After preliminary investigation
details of this sub-camp  as well as of the suspects could not be determined, after which the proceedings were terminated.


The Meat Works of Rudilf Thomae in Munich could not be located for this writing. During 1942 the company engaged prisoners from the KZ-Dachau. The International Search Service first mentions of an individual prisoner on 21 August 1942. But since two Kapo's of this sub-camp are known, and since a  single prisoner was never overseen by one Kapo alone, the camp consisted of more than one prisoner. On 1 November 1942, Wilhelm Binner was replaced by Erwin Hansselmann as Kapo of the sub-camp. The composition of  this working commando was that, according to the documents at hand,  exclusively about skilled workers, who were either engineers and carpenters. Other details could  not to be clarified
The last indication of this camp, is a strength report for the KZ-Dachau of March 12, 1942.
The Central District Court proceeded without results about the existence of a sub-camp Meat Works  Thomae.

Auther German Text: Sabine Schalm 


Der Ort des Terrors, Pages 414-
Vol 2 C.H.Beck, München 2005

Translated from German by:
 Stolpmann,Herbert Karl Walter
 von Waldeck                                                          Continued under Part 16

Thursday, February 2, 2017

Dachau KZ - Satelliite Camps Part 14 Alphabetical Order M


                                 DACHAU KZ - SATELLITE CAMPS - PART 14

                                                   Alphabetical Order



The textile factory Lodenfrey had been in Osterholzstrasse 9-10 since 1842.
In 1928 Georg Frey joined the management in the field of manufacturing. He had been a party member and of the  SS since 1933: (Civil SS), but in 1937 he left the SS for religious reasons. In 1933, the company produced uniforms for some units of the 'Stahlhelm', and in the years to come delivered coats for the SA, Hitlerjugend, and Reichsarbeitsdienst. Between 1933 and 1940, the family business was able to increase the number of employees and profits, so that in 1934 and after 1942 the factory building was extended. Since the second year of the war economic downturns have been marked for the firm, especially in 1944/45 by two total destruction of the sales outlets in the Maffeistrasse 7 and Kaufingerstrasse 23

                                                     Pre-war Sales Outlet of LodenFrey

The first data on the existence of a detainee commando at the textile factory dated August 1942. This was a labor  commando, which was brought daily from the KZ-Dachau to Munich. How many prisoners were in this working detail, and what work they had to perform, is not clear. In May 1944, an additional commando of 30 detainees came to Loden-Frey to clean up the premises after a bombing raid. These prisoners were driven by truck, with six SS guards to Munich and returned in the evening to the KZ-Dachau. It was not until June 13, 1944, that a sub-camp at the company, at the Osterwaldstrasse, was established. The prisoners came from Poland, Russia, Yugoslavia, but also from France and Italy. Wilhelm Reissmann was the only German who acted as Kapo.

The 30 prisoners were accommodated in a garage on the factory premises,  where they had beds and bed linen provided for them. The hygienic conditions were good, as there was a shower which could be used daily, on top of that the prisoners were allowed to bathe at the weekend in the swimming pool of the company. There was no fencing in or around their accommodation. They also received their meals from the company kitchen but they sat aside from the civilian employees. In 1944/45 the garage was damaged during another air raid and the prisoners were temporarily quartered in the basement of the factory. There was a radio available to them, with which the prisoners could hear foreign broadcasts. In 1944, the manager of the factory organized for the prisoners a small celebration with festivities in which everyone was given a shirt, fruit and cigarettes. The former prisoner Philipp Busch recalled that Georg Frey often procured additional food and cigarettes for the detainees. The prisoners were given so much bread that they could give some of it to the French POW in the factory.

Six SS guards, among them were at least three Volksdeutsche (Ethnic Germans), were accommodated in the same garage as the prisoners, separated only by a wall from them. They supervised the prisoners at their work assignment, not necessarily their performance, which was done by civilians.
There were no reports of killings or ill-treatment from the sub-camp. About one week before the arrival of the American troops in Munich, the sub-camp was ordered to be dissolved and the prisoners transferred back to the Stammlager Dachau. According to reports of survivors, Georg Frey refused to provide  a company truck to take them there. Instead, he fitted out all prisoners with civilian clothes, helped nine detainees to escape, and hid the rest in his house  or in the homes of company employees. After the SS guard team had left, 19 prisoners experienced their liberation in the factory of Loden-Frey.

Georg Frey resigned from the management in August 1945. In a de-nazifiction trial, he was classified as a 'Nitläufer' (fellow- party runner) in 1948 he had to pay an 'atonement'  sum of DM 2,000 and the costs of thecourt  proceedings of DM 75,000. [The system was introduced only in the American Zone, the OMGB (Office of the Military Government of Bavaria) if a person who had  been a member of the NSDAP, (the Nazi Party), (Sünde-Geld ''atonement-money'  was applied, this by no means changed the political opinion of the individual concerned. Those that were categorized as former Naziis [by that, according to the Occupatio Forces had committed a 'Sin' thus Sühne-Geld and could not pay were detained in concentration type camps with a maximum of four years. This whole scheme was stopped with the cold war heating up 1951 in Korea  sic]
Loden-Frey is still a respected Munich textile company. The former factory site in the Osterwaldstrasse is now a commercial area, which is rented out and managed by Loden-Freypark GmbH. On the place, where the prisoners were accommodated in the Garage, there is now a Car-Park Building. Behind it is still the swimming-poolstill  mentioned in prisoners' reports. In 2003 a statement was commissionedand published by the company  on their role during the time of the National Socialism.
There is no memorial tablet on the site. [Georg Frey died on the 28. August 1976, sic]

Author German Text: Sabine Schalm


The shoe house Eduard Meier in Munich, today Residenzstrasse 22, promotes, formerly promoted as a Royal Bavarian Courtier and now the oldest shoe house in Germany. According to the International Search Service, between November 1944 and February 1945 the sub-camp Schuhhaus Meier used up to twelve prisoners. KZ-files, which could give further information about this work commando, are not available.

As far back in the 1930s as well as in the 1940s, a sales outlet and repair shop, maintained by craftsmen
were located in the middle of the NS Party district at Karlstrasse 3-5. During  an air attack on the 17th December 1944 the premises were completely destroyed, so that their own production had to be stopped. At this time, the shoe repair facilities were supposed to have been sent to the KZ-Dachau and taken over by inmates. Civilian employees at the Schuhhaus Meier were regularly taken by truck to Dachau to deliver the shoes needing repair and pick up the finished footwear. In addition, a shoe polisher/grinder was delivered from the Munich shop  to Dachau.

Investigations by the Central Office of the State Justice Administration in 1973 were unable to contact any survivors of this sub-camp. The proceedings were terminated in 1974 without results. Today's company management is not aware that prisoners ever worked in their factory in th Karlstrasse, After the destruction the building the family Meier did not rebuild on the estate in the Karlstrasse, but sold the the building it had stood, after the war to the Oberfinanzdirektion Munich. Today, a new building is used mainly for commercial purposes.

Author German Text: Sabine Schalm


Since 1936, the administrative offices of the SS-Oberabschnitt Süd( Upper Section South) were located at Maria-Theresia-Strasse 17, a parallel street to Möhlstrasse. Prisoners of the KZ-Dachau were assigned to the Upper Section South, but the sub-camp was in the Möhlstrasse. For this reason, various proscriptions appeared in the list of transitions and changes made by Dachau concerning the sub-camp: Möhlstrasse and SS Obedrabschnitt Süd. Both are however one and the same sub-camp.

The first mention of this sub-camp is a report on the death of two prisoners by an air attack on 9 June 1944. It is clear from this. that a commando of Dachau prisoners had already been deployed before this day. An accurate dating is not possible. There is also little concrete information on the number indicated in their actual listed strength. The international search service show ten prisoners, a report of the KZ-Dachau of 3 April 1945 lists eight prisoners and a list from the clothing supply room of Dachau indicates only four prisoners for the sub-camp SS-Upper Section South.
The prisoners, as far as they are known from the lists of transcripts, came from the German Reich and other countries. According to the International Search Service, the prisoners were engaged in building repairs. The construction of an air-raid shelter is mentioned elsewhere.

The sub-camp was last mentioned in the form of the return of two Yugoslavian prisoners held in "custody" back to the Stammlager Dachau on 25 April 1945.

In 1973/74, the Central Office of the District Justice Department (Landesjustizverwaltun)g conducted an investigation into this sub-camp. The procedure was discontinued due to lack of new evidence.
In the buildings at Maria-Theresienstrasse 17, offices of the Bavarian ministries of education for cultus and science, as well as for science, research and art, are now available and taught there.

Author German Text: Sabine Schalm



Since 1928, Franz Nützl has been managing the Nursery and running a wholesale trade in vegetables and fruit at Ludwigsfeld 9 in Munich. As an SA member, he was involved in 1933 until 1938 at Beer-Hall battles in Munich and at the fire of the Munich synagogue. In 1937, he joined the NSDAP and fostered his close contacts with the SS and SD figures in High Command. He was also active for the SD and wrote monthly reports.

Until 1933, the nursery company was on the verge of bankruptcy. With the takeover of power by the  National Socialists, Franz Nützl was able to open up new business partners and became one of the most influential wholesale traders in Munich. Until the end of the war, he was the only fruit and vegetable supplier for Munich and the surrounding SS garrisons, their hospitals, police schools as well as recreational centers of the police, the SS and the SD. He provided the requirements of the canteens in the Contraction Camp Dachau, KZ-Mauthausen, Auschwitz, Flossenbürg, Sachsenhausen, Buchenwwald and Ravensbrück.
Unbelievable the KZ-Dachau supplied Franz not only with goods, but he also profited from their workshops. For example, he had his own shoe-making work for himself and his family done there, and he also received materials for the expansion of his company from Dachau.

In 1940, Franz Nützl benefited from his close ties with the Party(Nazi-Party) and the SS decision-makers by assigning prisoners of war as aid workers for his gardening operation. The first KZ-prisoners worked for him in 1941 at Ludwigsfeld. SS Unterscharführer Bruno Jakusch came in September 1942 as commanding officer with about 24 prisoners and four to five guards to Nützl's company. After an air attack on September 22, 1944, large parts of the nursery were destroyed. Useful and convenient, Franz Nützl also worked as an expert on war damages, was compensated in a very short time and was given an additional 70 prisoners for clearing work on his company premises.

According to a former prisoner, who worked in the writing room (Schreibstubed) of the KZ-Dachau, this Commando was very unpopular until 1943. No one wanted to be assigned to this command. The work there  was exhausting, and commandant Jakusch and Kapo Rohmer were generally known as brutal individuals. Franz Nützl and his wife did not only allow the mistreatment to happen, but also encouraged the guard teams to drive the detainees to higher performances. If an inmate did not work quickly and well enough, Franz Nützl reported back to Böttcher in Dachau, and then ordered the prisoner to be returned to the Stammlager (Main Camp).

In December, 1944, commandant Jakusch was removed from the gardening enterprise Nützl after an epileptic attack. Successor became an SS-member named Uelzhofer. He was also reported to have been beating prisoners he had caught while stealing. According to Uelzhofer, there was at least one other commanding officer, but no details are known.

The prisoners from the Dachau concentration camp brought their own food with them. However, after heavy work, they were given an  extra allowances by the firm of Franz Nützl.
 How and under what circumstances the prisoners working at the nursery had been lodged is not known.
Until January 1943 they still slept at the KZ-Dachau. A civilian employee remembers that because of a quarantine at the main camp, the work of the prisoners in the nursery was interrupted for two months. Hans Hornung reported that the prisoners were placed into the sub-camp Munich-Allach at the instigation of Franz Nützl after a period of four years. When the detainee commando was actually accommodated  into the sub-camp is  no longer possible to verify.

During September 1944 about 92 prisoners from all German occupied countries of Europe were working for Nützl. Kapo at that time was the Viennese inmate Rohner until September 1944. When the rubble clearing team from Dachau came after the destruction to the nursery utility, Rohmer was on vacation. Karl Poltschek took over his post. After his return, Rohner remained in command for only a short time. His successor was Hans Schneider, who oversaw the working commando as Kapo until January 1945.

From January 1943 the German prisoner Hans Hornung worked in the bookkeeping department. Nützl wanted to use him as a business manager, and he therefore tried to get the Administration of the KZ-Dachau for the release of Hornung. The latter was freed on 7 June 1944 with the obligation of duty of service (Dienstverpflichtung) only at the company of Nüztl. With this, Franz Nützl admittedly had freed Hans Hornung from the Concentration Camp, but at the same time forced him into a personal relationship dependency. Several times, Franz Nützl threatened Hans Hornung to return him to the Concentration Camp-. Nevertheless, Hornung tried to improve the situation of the detainees of the working commando Nütgzl, by repeatedly advocating the award of bonuses to the prisoners which was due to them.
[Mrs Hornung was God-Mother to my wife October 1933 and was named after her: 'Anne-Marie.]

Nothing is known of inmate killings from the work detail ''Nützl', during an air attack some prisoners were injured, and seven died in September 1944. The injured people were taken to the Revier at Camp Dachau.

About two days before the invasion of the American troops into Munich, Franz Nützl fled. How long the prisoners stayed on and had worked in the nursery and what happened to them is not known. Only Hans Hornung remained active in the company, and continued the business under American occupation, until Franz Nützl returned out of his hiding place after two weeks.
To hide profits out of his business with the SS, Franz Nützl, after the war  legally transferred a large part of his business over to his wife, and sold his workshops and vehicles to his nephew Franz Auracher. De facto, he remained head of the company.
In 1949, Franz Nützl was assigned to the group of followers by the Supreme Court Munich, and he had to pay a penalty of DM 100 [which was the lowest penalty the Court could impose,sic] and the costs of the proceedings of DM 59,000. An investigation of the Central Office in Ludwigsburg was discontinued in 1974, since there were no indications for a crime in this sub-camp being committed. The former commandant Bruno Jakusch was condemned in 1947 within the framework of the Dachauer processes to two years and six months 

Author German Text: Sabine Schalm

Der Ort des Terrors, Pages 407-
Vol 2 C.H.Beck, München 2005
Translated from German by:
 Stolpmann,Herbert Karl Walter
 von Waldeck                                                          Continued under Part 15